• Manju Malaviya

      Articles written in Proceedings – Section B

    • The distribution, structure and ontogeny of sclereids inDendropthœ falcata (L.f.) ettings

      A R Rao Manju Malaviya

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      The sclereids found in the stem, leaf, perianth and fruits of this species correspond to the category of astrosclereids. Their ontogeny reveals that they are transformed cells of the mesophyll. An interesting feature is the presence of crystals in the adult sclereids.

    • A study of sclereids in three species of Nymphæa

      Manju Malaviya

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      The start-shaped sclereids found in the three species ofNymphæa, namelyN. Stellata, N. rubra andN. lotus, are transformed parenchyma cells, which are probably produced to give rigidity and strength to the plant.

    • Study of sclereids inNymphoides cristatum (Roxb.) O. Kuntz

      Manju Malaviya

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      It is seen that the sclereids inNymphoides cristatum are absent in the floral parts excepting the fruits and are present in vegetative parts excepting the roots and stipules. The sclereids are differentiated from a ground parenchyma cell in the rhizome, from a mesophyll cell bordering the air-canal in the leaf and from a parenchyma cell in the fruit. It is suggested that the sclereids make up for the deficiency of lignified tissues in the plant. Their presence in many hydrophytes may be correlated with lack of lignified tissues.

    • On the distribution, structure and ontogeny of stone-cells inAvicennia officinalis Linn.

      Manju Malaviya

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      The thick-walled lignified, pitted cells found in the stem and leaf ofAvicennia may be placed under the category of “Brachysclereids” or “stone-cells” of Tschrich (1885) and Foster (1949). These are transformed parenchyma cells in the stem, a hypodermal or mesophyll cell in the petiole and lamina of the leaf. They are formed by the “secondary sclerosis” of these parenchyma cells.

    • On the occurrence of stone-cells in twelve species of clerodendron

      Manju Malaviya

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      Twelve locally available species ofClerodendron have been examined for a comparative study of stone-cell structure, distribution and ontogeny. The species fall into two classes. First group includesC. fragrans, C. infortunatum, C. splendens andC. minahassae which have brachysclereids developed from transformed parenchyma cells of cortex or pith. The second group includesC. aculeatum andC. inerme which have “spheroidal sclereids” formed by the conversion of the collenchyma cell of the cortex. This has not been, as I am aware, reported so far. Both types develop by the “secondary sclerosis” of either the parenchyma cell or the collenchyma cell. So far as has been noticed, stone-cells seem to be present only in those species where the sclerenchyma or the phloem fibres are absent. It is therefore suggested that probably they both serve the same function of giving mechanical strength to the plant body. It has also been pointed out in view of the occurrence of some kind of crystals in these stone-cells, that they may be functioning as the repositories of excretory or secretory products.

    • The peculiar sclereids ofCephalotaxus drupacea Sieb.et Zuc. C.

      A R Rao Manju Malaviya

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      Peculiar, variously shaped osteo and brachysclereids occur in small numbers, in the stem, male cones and seed integument ofCephalotaxus drupacea Sieb.et Zuc. C. The distribution of these sclereids is rather localised in the stem and diffuse in the cones. A very curious feature of these sclereids is the presence of small, pointed or blunt emergences of the original cell protoplast, on the secondary wall. These are supposed to be the unlignified portions of the original protoplast, which have been cornered during the process of lignification. Both the types of sclereids develop from a parenchymatous initial. The ultimate form depends on the nature of the surrounding tissue and the organ in which they develop.

    • On the latex-cells and latex ofJatropha

      A R Rao Manju Malaviya

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      In different species ofJatropha examined a profusely branched system of non-articulated laticifers is found distributed in different plant organs. They originate in the embryonic stage from certain initials and keep pace with the growth of the plant. A few laticifers may also arise independently from spongy mesophyll cells in the leaves. The laticifers are present in all the parts of the plant chiefly occurring in the vicinity of vascular elements. Some preliminary qualitative tests showed in the latex, presence of certain enzymes and metabolic products like amino-acids, sugars, etc., showing thereby that latex does not only contain excretory products, but has also substances of some economic importance.

    • A study of the non-articulated laticifers and the nature of latex in two members of asclepiadaceae

      A R Rao Manju Malaviya

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      The non-articulated, very little branched, simple type of laticifers inLeptadenia reticulata originate at the embryonic stage of the plant. These later on grow and develop into the other organs and form a well distributed system of laticifers, in the stem and also in the leaves, near the veins and veinlets. A qualitative chemical analysis of the latex ofLeptadenia reticulata and alsoCryptostegia grandiflora, another member of the Asclepiadaceae, has revealed the presence of various kinds of enzymes, sugars and amino-acids in the latex. These, probably, are of some importance to the plant.

    • A study of sclereids in the fertile parts of two members of cupressaceae

      A R Rao Manju Malaviya

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      The structure, distribution and ontogeny of sclereids in the male and female cones have been found to be very similar in eight species ofCupressus, namelyC. macrocarpa, C. goveniana, C. funebris, C. lusitanica, C. knightiana, C. sempervirens, C. torulosa, andC. lindleyi and in someJuniperus species,i.e., J. chinensis, J. formosana, J. procera, and one unidentified species. There are no sclereids in the vegetative parts. The sclereids exhibit polymorphism. The ontogeny of different types of sclereids is the same in all the species. A parenchyma cell in the ground tissue of the female cone scale or in the microsporophylls differentiates as a sclereid initial, develops branching, undergoes “secondary sclerosis” and results in the formation of a thick-walled sclereid. The taxonomic importance of these sclereids is also discussed.

    • On the occurrence of sclereids in two genera of myrtaceae

      Manju Malaviya

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      The sclereids are present in the fruits and the stem of three species ofSyzygium, namelyS. cumini, S. cinereum, S. nodosum, andEucalyptus tereticornis. They are absent from the leaves of all the species. InSyzygium mostly brachysclereids occur in the stem, with a few osteo and astrosclereids in fruits. InEucalyptus there are polymorphic brachy, osteo, astrosclereids and bizarre types in both the stem and fruits. The ontogeny of the sclereids is the same in all the species. The sclereids of all these species are unusually large and the distribution pattern varies particularly in the fruits. Their structure also is different in the two genera and all this may be of some taxonomic value.

    • The laticifers and latex ofEuphorbia tirucalli Linn

      A R Rao Vimala K Menon Manju Malaviya

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      The non-articulate, simple, feebly branched laticifers ofEuphorbia tirucalli, occurring in the stem and leaf, have been investigated. The young laticifers are multinucleate, thin-walled, and full of contents, while the older ones develop a secondary wall traversed by numerous, obliquely running pit-canals. A qualitative analysis of the latex shows presence of some carbohydrates, proteolytic enzymes, amylase, etc.

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