• J V Bhat

      Articles written in Proceedings – Section B

    • Morphological and other studies on twoNocardia species

      J R Vakil S R Khambata J V Bhat

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      The morphological, cultural and physiological characters of strains ofNocardia corallina andNocardia rubra isolated from coconut oil and the alimentary canal of the earthworm are described. Deeply staining granules in the cytoplasm pf theNocardia when grown on Ashby’s nitrogen-free. medium have been reported,N. corallina showed bipolar granules whileN. rubra showed subcentrally situated granules. The observations are substantiated with photomicrographic illustrations. The need for further study of the cytology and nutrition of theNocardia is emphasised.

    • Epidemiological aspects of the Bombay duck or ‘bombil’ (Harpodon nehereus buch.)

      M J Albuquerque J V Bhat

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      The survival of the organismsMicrococcus pyogenes var.aureus,Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhosa, Salmonella schöttmuelleri andVibrio comma in sea water and in thebombil tissue has been studied. In addition the survival of these organisms in inoculated fish subsequently refrigerated, dehydrated, or held at room temperature has been studied. The effect of heat and culinary treatment on the inoculated fish has also been observed. Our results when correlated with the casual occurrence of bacteria of faecal origin on the flesh and ventriculus of the fish, together with the findings that cocci are present in large numbers on the skin and in almost pure culture in the ventriculus of the dehydrated fish (these have been reported in a previous communication, 1953), suggest the possibilities of this fish being a carrier of enteric infections. The fact thatE. coli, S. typhosa andM. pyogenes var.aureus resist culinary treatment, also indicates that infection is possible on consuming contaminated foods, even after the cooking process.

    • Micro-organisms associated with the “Bombay Duck” orBombil (Harpodon nehereus Buch.)

      J V Bhat M J Albuquerque

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      The fresh ‘Bombay Duck’ (Harpodon nehereus) has a normal bacterial flora of its own, among whichBacterium phosphoreum andSarcina littoralis or their variants predominate. The latter species also persists in the dehydrated variety of the fish, which otherwise presents a microbial picture, totally different from that of fresh fish. Besides the species mentioned, the fresh fish is also associated with an adventitious flora, in which the following genera are represented:Escherichia, Aerobacter, Micrococcus, Gaffkya,Achromobacter, Flavobacterium, Bacillus andPseudomonas. The occurrence of a large number and variety of micrococci in the dehydrated fish has a probable epidemiological significance.

    • Bacterium oxalaticum, a new oxalate-decomposing bacterium isolated from the intestine of earthworms

      S R Khambata J V Bhat

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      The isolation, cultural characteristics and the nutrition of an oxalatedecomposing micro-organism,Bacterium oxalaticum nov. sp., obtained from the intestine of Indian earthworms, are described and its taxonomical position discussed. Besides utilizing oxalate as a sole source of carbon the bacterium can utilize formate even better. Attention has been drawn to the fact that oxalate-decomposing bacteria occur in a family other than thePseudomonadaceæ—a. family which had hitherto yielded practically all the known oxalate-decomposing bacteria.

    • Studies on the micro-organisms associated with the leaves ofPongamia glabra Vent.

      Khorshed M Pavri J V Bhat

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      Microbiological and entomological findings made from the studies on the leaf-galls ofPongamia glabra Vent., are presented. Use of various routine and enrichment media resulted in the isolation ofPseudomonas æruginosa, Pseudomonas arvilla, Pseudomonas astragali, Pseudomonas Hydrophila andMicrococcus citreus. In the light of the revelations made, a brief discussion has been he d, and it has been suggested that the insects as well as the bacteria associated may symbiotically be the cause for the galls to form and that the insects by themselves may not be the sole factor responsible.

    • Marine yeasts off the Indian coast

      J V Bhat Nafisa Kachwalla

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      Microbiological analysis of samples of sea water collected off the coast of Bombay resulted in the isolation of over 80 yeasts by the enrichment culture methodology. A study of 74 strains indicated the preponderance of asporogenous over the sporogenous yeasts in the sea. The speciesCandida tropicalis probably occurs in the sea at all times and the other species belonging to the generaSaccharomyces, Debaryomyces, Torulopsis,Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula andTrichosporon have also been suggested as of marine origin.

    • Studies on acetobacter - I. Isolation and characterization of the species

      J V Bhat Koshilya Rijhsinghani

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      A study of 30 strains ofAcetobacter species from diverse sources such as air, soil, various fruits, fermented liquors and animal excreta was attempted. By a detailed characterization of the isolates, they could be divided into 5 groups and identified as species ofA. aceti, A. xylinum, A. pasteurianum, A. melanogenum, A. industrium, A. oxydans, A. aceti viscosum, A. aceti roseum, A. rancens and their variants. Detailed descriptions of the less known species are presented to supplement the information available in appendix to the genus given in theBergey’s Manual. The description of a group of 6 strains which possess the unusual property of fermenting several carbohydrates with the production of acid and gas—a property not thus far ascribed toAcetobacter species—is also given.

    • Aerobic mesophilic sporeforming bacteria in indian environments

      J V Bhat V Iyer

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    • The characteristics and questionable taxonomic position of the oxalate-decomposing bacterium,Vibrio extorquens

      V N Iyer S R Khambata J V Bhat

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      A detailed account of the morphological, staining, penicillin sensitivity and serological peculiarities of five strains of an oxalate-decomposing bacterium including the well-recognized strainVibrio extorquens, has been given. Inasmuch as all the strains share many of the characteristics of the genusArthrobacter and notVibrio the desirability of placing the bacterium in the former genus for the time being has been suggested. The possibility of the strains falling under an altogether new genus which represent a phylogenic link between the pseudomonads and diphtheroids has been speculated.

    • Trace element nutrition of the silkwormBombyx mori L. - I. Effect of trace elements

      S Sridhara J V Bhat

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      Trace elements zinc, copper, manganese, molybdenum and cobalt have been shown to have varying effects on growth and trace element composition of the silkworm. Results indicate the important role of manganese in the normal metabolism of the insect. Cobalt has been shown to exert a very favourable effect on growth and silk yield.

    • Trace element nutrition of the silkwormBombyx mori L. - II. Relationship between cobalt, vitamin B12, benzimidazole and purines

      S Sridhara J V Bhat

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      Benzimidazole is toxic to silkworms due to its antagonistic action to purines. Cobalt and copper possess the capacity to reverse its toxicity because of their ability to form complexes with benzimidazole. For reasons unknown cobalt exerts a favourable effect in its free form rather than in the vitamin form on the insect growth.

    • Trace element nutrition of the silkwormBombyx mori L - III. Effect of chelating agents

      S Sridhara J V Bhat

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      Some of the chelating agents have been shown to be of no avail for studying the trace element requirement of the silkworm.

    • Morphogenesis inArthrobacter species

      M F Mullakhanbhai J V Bhat

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      This paper presents data to show that arthrobacterial morphology depends upon the nature of nutrients in the culture media and the age of the cultures. Biotin has been shown to be a key nutrient affecting morphogenesis. Angular growth due to subpolar and bipolar germination and germination of two adjacent cocci have been indicated as the cause for the appearance of ‘V’ forms inArthrobacter. Life-cycle ofA. ruber n. sp. has been photomicrographically illustrated.

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