• D V Bal

      Articles written in Proceedings – Section B

    • A study of the effect of different types of rations on the quality of milk, milk yield and the general condition of milch buffaloes

      D V Bal S K Misra

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      Amongst the localGaolies and cultivators there is a belief that if milch animals are fed with oil-cakes instead of cotton seed, there is a deterioration in the quality of the milk although the milk yield may remain unaffected.

      Some feeding experiments were therefore conducted to test the effect of two different types of rations on the milch cattle (buffaloes), one consisting of groundnut cake in combination withtur chuni andjuar meal and the other consisting of cotton seed in combination with linseed-cake andtur chuni.

      Results obtained show the following:-

      Inclusion of cotton seed in the ration fed to which buffaloe does not show any particular advantage over a ration consisting of groundnut cake andjuar meal, in so far as the general health and individual weights of the animals, and of the calves at birth, are concerned.

      Average daily milk yields of the various animals were neither adversely affected nor particularly improved by the exclusion or inclusion of cotton seed in their daily diet and no characteristic variations in the percentage of fat in the milk were observed. These results are significant as they definitely show that the quality (commonly understood as the percentage of fat) of the milk is not in any way lowered by the exclusion of cotton seed from the diet,

      Cotton seed, however, significantly affects the characteristics of the butter fat by increasing its melting point, and by lowering the proportion of the volatile water-soluble and insoluble fatty acids contained in it.

      These results further establish the important fact that market samples of genuine butter andghee should ordinarily give a much higher Reichert-Meissl value than the minimum of 19.0 fixed under the C.P. Prevention of Adulteration Act of 1919, and in this respect they therefore confirm the results previously obtained by Plymen.1

    • A preliminary record of some of the chemical and physical conditions in waters of the Bombay Harbour during 1944–45

      D V Bal L B Pradhan K G Gupte

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      In the rainy season (from June 15th to the end of September) the Weather Was less settled and there were thunder storms and heavy showers of rain. There was a considerable disturbance in the sea and the water was mixed over great depths during this period. In the remaining part of the year the winds were lighter and the mixing of water less pronounced. The sky was overcast with clouds for the most part of the. rainy season and there was a bright sun light from October to the end of May 1945.

      The temperature of Water varied between 24° C. and 32.5° C. The maximum temperature of air was recorded as 103.1° F. on 24th March, 1945.

      The salinity was low in the rainy season.—23.56‰ on 17th July, 1944 and high in the summer—38.4‰ on 21st May, 1945.

      The range of Hydrogen-ion concentration was 7.8 to 8.35.

      Phosphates were found in quantities varying between 13.04mg./m3 and 37.8mg./m3. It was as high as 51.9mg./m3 in one sample.

      The amount of dissolved silica was greater than any other chemical constituents recorded here. The lowest value was 315mg./m3 and the highest 1953mg./m3.

      The minimum and maximum quantities for nitrite were 4.60mg./m3 and 167.1 mg./m3 and for ammonia 9.84mg./m3 and 156.3 mg./m3 respectively.

    • The food of some young Clupeids

      S V Bapat D V Bal

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    • The food of some young fishes from Bombay

      S V Bapat D V Bal

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      In the present investigation extending over a period of two years from June 1945 to June 1947, the stomach contents of 2,188 young fishes belonging to 21 species were examined for determining their food and feeding habits.

      The young forms of almost all the species are surface plankton feeders, and are carnivorous, exceptScatophagus argus which feeds mainly on algæ.

      Planktonic prawn larvae mostly belonging to the genusAcetes formed the main food of the young forms of a number of species mentioned above, whereas the grown-up ones seem to prefer mostly fish diet consisting ofBregmaceros macclellandi, Engraulis commersonianus, Otolithus argentens, Clupeids, etc.

      Equula insidiatrix andE. ruconius seem to have a special liking for polychætes, whereas copepods formed the main food of the young forms ofE. fasciata during the first stage.

      Diatoms in fairly high percentages were taken byMugil troschelli andM. parsia, though copepods formed their main item of food.

      Amongst the Percidæ, the amphipods formed an important item of food in addition to prawn larvæ and copepods.Ambassis commersoni, however, has a greater preference to polychæte food.

      The younger forms of all the Sciænids take prawns as their main food, and the percentage of their fish food goes on slowly increasing as they grow in size.

    • The enzymes of some elasmobranchs from Bombay - III. Amylases ofScoliodon sorrakowah andSphyrna blochii

      D S Ghanekar D V Bal Sohoni Kamala

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      1. InS. sorrakowah andS. blochii amylolytic activity is maximum in pancreas, minimum in intestine, muscle, heart and brain, intermediate in liver, spleen and kidney and absent in stomach and ampullæ of lorenzini.

      2. Pancreas and liver of both the fishes and pig pancreas containα-andβ-amylases. Kidney amylase is anα-amylase and spleen amylase is aβ-amylase.

      3. InS. sorrakowah and pig there seems to be probable interconversion of pancreaticα-amylase ⇋β-amylase under the influence of Ca++.

      4. Both water and aqueous glycerol are equivalent extractants of enzyme. Desmo-amylase seems to be predominantly ofα-type and lyoamylase ofβ-type.

      5. Pancreatic lyo-amylase of both the fishes shows the presence of proamylase.

    • The enzymes of some elasmobranchs from Bombay - IV. Lipases ofScoliodon sorrakowah andRhyncobatus djddensis

      D V Bal D S Ghanekar

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      1. InS. sorrakowah andR. djddensis lipolytic activity is maximum in pancreas, minimum in spleen and kidney, intermediate in liver and absent in muscle and brain.

      2. Aqueous glycerol and aqueous ethanol are good extractants ofS. sorrakowah pancreatic lipase.

      3.S. sorrakowah pancreatic lipase is obtained as a yellowish white powder. Activity of enzyme is a function of H+ concentration, time and enzyme concentration. Both CaCl2 and bile salt are activators of the enzyme. Comparative rates of hydrolysis of different fats by enzyme have been studied.

    • The development of the chondrocranium inTrichopodus trichopterus (Pall.)

      V B Marathe D V Bal

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    • Observations on the ossification centres ofTrichopodus trichopterus (Pall.)

      V B Marathe D V Bal

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    • Some observations on shell-deposits of the oysterCrassostrea gryphoides (Schlotheim)

      V S Durve D V Bal

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    • Studies on the maturation and spawning of the Indian whiting (Sillago Sihama Forskal) from karwar waters

      V C Palekar D V Bal

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      1. A study of maturity and spawnings ofSillago sihama based on the detailed examination of 500 specimens of fish and their ovaries and also on casual observations of over a thousand females has been attempted in this paper. Preliminary observations on the condition of testes have also been made from 135 specimens.

      2. The female fish have been classified as Immature, Maturing, Mature and Spent, with reference to the condition of their ovaries. The mature ovum contains a single oil globule generally measuring between 0·13 mm. and 0·15 mm. in diameter.

      3. A study of the maturation cycle brought out three phases in the life of the fish:

      4. The spawning period inS. sihama is of short duration and spawning takes place only once during the season.

      5. The size of the femaleSillago at first maturity has been approximately fixed at 235 mm. in total length. The females were found to attain a maximum size of 354 mm. in total length.

      6. The smallest male specimen with ‘mature’ testes measured 224 mm. The males attain a relatively smaller size, the maximum size noted being 273 mm.

      7. The number of mature eggs liberated in a single spawning has been found to vary from 16,682 to 166,130 in sizes of fish ranging between 184 mm. and 340 mm. in total length.

    • Monstrilla lata, a new species of monstrilloid copepod from Bombay plankton

      H V Desai D V Bal

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    • Cassidina extenda, a new species of isopod from Bombay

      U N Joshi D V Bal

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    • Seasonal gonadal changes in adult freshwater mussel,Parreysia favidens var.Marcens (Benson)

      V Y Patil D V Bal

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      1. Seasonal gonadal changes in adult mussels were observed.

      2. The spawning starts in the month of March and continues up to October indicating a prolonged breeding period.

      3. After the start of the spawning, lipid globules appear in the lumen of the follicles.

      4. In the male, spermatocytical morulae appear after the start of the spawning.

      5. No indeterminate sex condition or hermaphroditism is noticed.

    • Maturation and spawning ofJohnius dussumieri (Cuv. and Val.)

      V V Savant D V Bal

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      Investigations dealing with the maturation and spawning of the Sciaenid,Johnius dussumieri, were carried out to determine the spawning season, spawning periodicity, fecundity and the ponderal index. The growth of the ovaries and the ova and the changes occurring in them in different stages of maturity have been described. Sex composition during different months and the size at first maturity were studied. Spawning seasons based on the monthly analysis of maturity stages of females were determined. With the help of ova-diameter measurements the spawning periodicity was assessed. Fecundity was correlated to total length and weight of the fish. Ponderal index or condition factor was studied in relation to size and spawning seasons.

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