• S L Malurkar

      Articles written in Proceedings – Section A

    • Effect of radiation on the transmission of temperature discontinuity

      S L Malurkar

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    • On the differential equation of the instability of a thin layer of fluid heated from below

      S L Malurkar M P Srivastava

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    • On a method of solving linear differential equations in series

      S L Malurkar

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    • Ellipsoidal harmonics of large orders

      S L Malurkar

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    • Dynamics of thunderstorms

      S L Malurkar

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      The development of a thunderstorm which is essentially a convective phenomenon needs a cause for initial convection and then conditions for its maintenance once started. The possibility of the inherent instability due to potentially colder air superposed on potentially warmer air or the analogous case of extra injection of moisture in the lower layers in shown to be not applicable in nature and that causes for initial convection must be found elsewhere than in the potential density distribution. Some of the causes are non-horizontality of surfaces of equal temperature and equal humidity; and gradient of wind velocity. It is shown that upward rise of air produced by unequal heating of the ground, does not stop where the rising mass of air attains a density equal to that of the environment (hydrostatic equilibrium), but continues to rise higher till the momentum developed is reduced to zero. The extent of over-shooting is nearly of the same order as the height between the initial level and the level of hydrostatic equilibrium. Once the condensation level is reached, it is well known that the convection will become regenerative due to the evolution of the latent heat of condensation. In the usual treatment of the problem, the ascending parcel of air is expected to condense at or before it reaches the level of hydrostatic equilibrium if it is to develop into a thunderstorm. The dynamical treatment outlined in this paper takes into consideration the overshooting of the parcel of air and thereby allows much drier air to reach condensation and thereafter maintain convection: and can thus account for a larger number of thunderstorms.

    • Isobars in the tropics—Some basic ideas of tropical meteorology

      S L Malurkar

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      The subject of Tropical Meteorology is of late assuming importance to be dealt with theoretically. Meteorological network is also being developed. It is shown that even in the tropics, in the region of steady winds and small pressure gradients, the isobars follow the wind directions. Taking the idea of streamlines and isobars at upper levels in higher latitudes, methods of drawing isobars are given. This is particularly important, as due to small pressure gradients in the tropics, there is great latitude in drawing isobars and some almost ignore the pressure values. Methods of drawing conclusions from meteorological facts are given. *** DIRECT SUPPORT *** A00OC036 00002

    • A simple nomogram for the rate of ascent of rubber balloons and improved technique with balloons and balloon material

      S L Malurkar

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      The formula for the rate of ascent of a rubber balloon filled with a lighter gas contains two other variables, the dead weight of the balloon and the free-lift of the inflated balloon. Usually many graphs have to be drawn connecting the three variables for use. By a simple transformation it is shown that all the formulae are reduced to Y3=(Y+X)2 which can be graphed easily. The importance of this formula is explained by showing that there is little actual difference in the rate of ascent whether the weight of attachments are added to the dead-weight of the balloon or subtracted from the free-lift before applying the formula.

      To utilise balloons economically and predetermine their behaviour in practice, it is necessary to make comparisons quantitatively. Simple formulæ are given.

      A method of pasting two sheets of cellophane material is given which leads to a gas-tight and moisture-proof joint.

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