Articles written in Sadhana

    • Storage of surface flows through groundwater recharge

      M C Chaturvedi V K Srivastava

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      The Ganga basin in India has a serious problem of water availability. The basin, which is only one twelfth of the United States in area, has a population greater than the totalus population, and is increasing at a rate of 2·5% per annum. About 77% of the population is engaged in agriculture which is totally dependent on irrigation, as almost 85% of the rainfall comes down in 2–3 monsoon months. Surface storage possibility is extremely limited, but groundwater recharge appears feasible, since sedimentary alluvial formations extend to depths of thousands of metres. Three alternative schemes of groundwater recharge have been proposed. One involves pumping heavily along perennial rivers prior to the monsoon so as to lower the water-table and promote induced groundwater recharge. The second proposes a similar approach along nonperennial rivers. The third involves irrigation during the monsoon with groundwater lowered adequately in the non-monsoon period so that enough induced groundwater recharge takes place to provide adequate supplies for non-monsoon months. A simulation-optimization model has been developed to study the surface flow-groundwater interaction and has been applied to study comparative cost effectiveness of the three alternate approaches. Sensitivity analysis has also been carried out. It is shown that the third scheme is the most attractive.

    • Effect of particle doping on the mechanical behavior of 2D woven (0°/90°) jute fabric (plain weave) reinforced polymer matrix composites


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      The performance and functionality of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites can be enhanced many folds by incorporating hard filler particulates which may significantly increase mechanical properties. This study was aimed to hybridize the jute fabric reinforced polymer (JFRP) based laminated composites with cement particulates for the enhancement of their mechanical properties. The laminated cement particulates filled jute fabric reinforced polymer (CmJFRP) and JFRP composites were fabricated via hand lay-up method. The weight fraction of cement particles was varied as 1%, 3%, and 5%. The thickness of the composites was also varied as 3.1 mm, 4.4 mm, and 6.3 mm (i.e. by varying the number of lamina). The mechanical behavior of the composites was assessed via tensile test, microhardness, Izod impact test, and critical buckling load. The tensile tests revealed that CmJFRP composites exhibit lower tensile strength than that of JFRP composites, which was mainly ascribed to the agglomeration of cement particles at the fiber/matrix interface. The microhardness, impact strength, and critical buckling load were higher for CmJFRP composites as compared to JFRP composites. The scanning electron microscopy of the fractured composites revealed that crack front changed its plane and direction when it encountered the cement particles.

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