Articles written in Sadhana

    • Simultaneous measurement of aerodynamic and heat transfer data for large angle blunt cones in hypersonic shock tunnel

      Niranjan Sahoo S Saravanan G Jagadeesh K P J Reddy

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      Aerodynamic forces and fore-body convective surface heat transfer rates over a 60° apex-angle blunt cone have been simultaneously measured at a nominal Mach number of 5.75 in the hypersonic shock tunnel HST2. An aluminum model incorporating a three-component accelerometer-based balance system for measuring the aerodynamic forces and an array of platinum thin-film gauges deposited on thermally insulating backing material flush mounted on the model surface is used for convective surface heat transfer measurement in the investigations. The measured value of the drag coefficient varies by about ± 6% from the theoretically estimated value based on the modified Newtonian theory, while the axi-symmetric Navier-Stokes computations overpredict the drag coefficient by about 9%. The normalized values of measured heat transfer rates at 0‡ angle of attack are about 11% higher than the theoretically estimated values. The aerodynamic and the heat transfer data presented here are very valuable for the validation of CFD codes used for the numerical computation of flow fields around hypersonic vehicles.

    • Calibration of a silver thin film gauge for short duration convective step heat load


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      Thin film gauges (TFGs) are a promising candidate for measuring transient heat fluxes in the applications involving very short duration of heating environment. They are basically resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) having the capability of responding in the range of few microseconds. In the present study, asilver thin film gauge (STFG) is fabricated and calibrated in-house with a view to assess the performance of STFGs in dynamic environment. Convective heat load is supplied by a hot-air gun where the heated air jet strikes the gauge and its response is obtained through voltage signal. Subsequently, the surface heat fluxes are estimated by using one dimensional heat conduction modeling. The similar experimental environment is studied to obtain the flow behavior of hot-air jet emanating into atmosphere by using numerical simulations. The selfsimilar velocities are plotted as well as the interference of outer domain into the experiment parameters has been studied. Ultimately, the surface heat fluxes obtained from various methods are compared to analyse the performance of this hand-made STFG. This study reveals the ability of STFGs to be used in practical short duration transient situations.

    • State-of-the-art technology in variable compression ratio mechanism for spark ignition engine


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      Present investigations deal with development of a novel variable compression ratio (VCR) mechanism and its implementation in a small and relatively large size single-cylinder engines. Operation of this mechanism is found to be smooth and effective in the running condition of the engine as well. This mechanism,when incorporated in the small size spark ignition HONDA engine, portrayed improvement in engine performance with increment in compression ratio (CR) for petrol and kerosene. Their respective optimum CRs 5.02 (petrol) and 5.27 (kerosene) are higher than the base value 4.8. In case of large size KIRLOSKAR engine, the present VCR mechanism is found to be useful while operating with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), where measurements showed that combustion duration is lower with LPG for CR 9.79 as compared with base value9.0. The present experiments clearly demonstrate the usefulness of VCR mechanism in improving engine performance for a given fuel and broadening the range of alternative fuels burnt in the engine. Ease of fabrication, simplicity in installation, accessibility in troubleshooting and smooth run-time alterations are theadvantages with the current novel mechanism.

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