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    • The effects of flux particle size and column height on the bead geometry in submerged arc welding


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      The weld bead geometry has a significant influence on the quality of welds in submerged arc welding (SAW). Much research has been undertaken to investigate the influence of various welding parameters like arc voltage, welding current, electrode diameter, wire stickout, travel speed, and welding polarity on the bead geometry in SAW welding process. But the effects of flux particle size and the flux column height are still largely uninvestigated. This paper presents a systematic investigation of the effects of flux particle size and column height on the bead geometry in the SAW process. The experiments were designed by central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Welding current, travel speed, flux particle size, and column height were taken as independent process variables. The experimental data was used to develop quadratic polynomial regressionmodels for penetration, bead width, and reinforcement. After testing for their adequacy and fit, these models were used to understand the main and interactive effects of the process variables on the bead geometry. Theresults showed that both the flux particle size and column height significantly influence the bead geometry of the welds. A 100% increase in average particle size, reduced the bead width by 9% and increased the reinforcement by 12%. On the other hand, a 50% rise in the flux height elevated the bead width by 10% and reduced the reinforcement by 15%. However, the penetration remained unaffected by both these factors. Further, it was also found that a course flux coupled with a low flux column height could produce smoother weld beads with fine ripples, free from surface defects.

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