Articles written in Sadhana

    • Analysis of three-dimensional transient seepage into ditch drains from a ponded field


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      An analytical solution in the form of infinite series is developed for predicting time-dependent three-dimensional seepage into ditch drains from a flat, homogeneous and anisotropic ponded field of finite size,the field being assumed to be surrounded on all its vertical faces by ditch drains with unequal water level heights in them. It is also assumed that the field is being underlain by a horizontal impervious barrier at a finite distance from the surface of the soil and that all the ditches are being dug all the way up to this barrier. The solution can account for a variable ponding distribution at the surface of the field. The correctness of the proposed solution for a few simplified situations is tested by comparing predictions obtained from it with the corresponding values attained from the analytical and experimental works of others. Further, a numerical check on it is also performed using the Processing MODFLOW environment. It is noticed that considerable improvement on the uniformity of the distribution of the flow lines in a three-dimensional ponded drainage space can be achieved by suitablyaltering the ponding distribution at the surface of the soil. As the developed three-dimensional ditch drainage model is pretty general in nature and includes most of the common variables of a ditch drainage system, it is hoped that the drainage designs based on it for reclaiming salt-affected and water-logged soils would prove to be more efficient and cost-effective as compared with designs based on solutions developed by making use of more restrictive assumptions. Also, as the developed model can handle three-dimensional flow situations, it isexpected to provide reliable and realistic drainage solutions to real field situations than models being developed utilizing the two-dimensional flow assumption. This is because the existing two-dimensional solutions to the problem are actually valid not for a field of finite size but for an infinite one only.

    • Analysis of three-dimensional ponded drainage of a multi-layered soil underlain by an impervious barrier


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      A general analytical model is proposed for predicting three-dimensional seepage into ditch drains through a soil column comprising of three distinct vertical anisotropic soil layers and underlain by an impervious barrier, the drains being fed by a distributed ponding head introduced at the surface of the soil column. The problem is solved for three different situations resulting from three different locations of the water table in the ditches, namely, when the water level lies in the first layer, when it lies in the second layer and finally when it falls in the third layer. The derived solutions are validated by comparing with analytical solutions of others for a few drainage scenarios; in addition, a few numerical checks on them have also been carried out by making use of the Processing MODFLOW environment. From the study, it is seen that ponded drainage of a multi-layered soil is mostly three-dimensional in nature, particularly in locations close to the drains and that the directional conductivities of the layers play a pivotal role in deciding the hydraulics of flow associated with such a system. Further, it has also come out of the study that by suitably altering the ponding distribution at the surface of the soil, the uniformity of water movement in a multi-layered drainage system can be considerably improved mainly if the directional conductivities of the bottom layers are relatively lower than those of the top layer. As soils innature are mostly stratified and as no analytical solution to the three-dimensional ponded ditch drainage problem currently exists for a layered soil, the proposed solutions are expected to be important additions to the alreadyexisting repertoire of drainage solutions on the subject, particularly when looked in the context of reclamation of water-logged and saline soils in layered field situations.

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