Articles written in Sadhana

    • Experimental investigation of drying kinetics of apple with hot air, microwave and ultrasonic power


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      The experiments were performed for various conditions at 40–60 °C air temperature, 0.5–1.5 m/sair velocity, 120–600 W microwave and 50–200 W ultrasonic power so as to investigate the effects of drying airtemperature, air velocity, microwave and ultrasonic power on the drying characteristics of apple slices. In thestudy, the combined use of hot air, microwave and ultrasonic energy for apple slices was determined as the mosteffective and fastest drying method. Besides, according to the experimental results applied to the modelsselected from the literature, the model that best described the drying characteristics of the apple under themicrowave and ultrasonic effect was that of Midilli et al and the correlation coefficient R2 was calculated to bebetween 0.9969 and 0.9999.

    • Experimental investigation of the use of LPG in a gasoline vehicle with a fuel stratified injection


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      This study is intended to determine the applicability of LPG systems with hybrid LPG technology which could not be applied before in vehicles with layered combustion system. No previous academic studies have been found in the literature on hybrid LPG system. This technology exists in the sector, but an academic gap has been filled with this study. For this purpose, Volkswagen Touran 1.6 FSI brand vehicle, which had a four-stroke, four-cylinder, direct injection, split intake manifold, layered combustion system gasoline enginewith AKL brand hybrid LPG system, was used on a dynamometer and vehicle wheel power and exhaust emission values were measured according to DIN 70020 at different gear ranges and speeds. When the power values were examined, it was determined that there was approximately 10.23% power loss in LPG mode compared to gasoline mode. When gasoline and LPG fuels are evaluated in terms of energy values in liter basis use; this may result from the fact that LPG gives 30% less energy than gasoline, and secondly LPG fuel occupies more space because it enters the combustion chamber in gaseous phase with the air in the engine intake manifold. When the exhaust emission values are analyzed, it is seen that 8.25% and 71.76% less harmful emissions occur for CO2 and CO values in LPG mode compared to gasoline mode. It was also seen that, in HC values, there was 27.15% less emission in 3rd, 4th and 5th gear levels in LPG mode compared to gasoline mode; and there was 14.28% more emission in 6th gear level. When the changes of the lambda (λ) values areexamined, it is observed that it occurs at a more ideal rate in the 3rd and 4th gear stages in LPG mode compared to gasoline mode, in the 5th and 6th gear. As a result, it was observed that hybrid LPG system can be applied on gasoline engines with layered combustion system and although there is a loss of power in terms of vehicle performance, it was concluded that the use of LPG was advantageous compared to the use of gasoline fuel regarding exhaust emissions.

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