Articles written in Sadhana

    • Construction of lightweight authentication scheme for networkapplicants using smart cards


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      The accelerated growth of internet technologies has offered various services to users, although the access to data comes with a greater encumbrance as data are transferred via a public channel. To ensure authorised and secure data access, various authenticated key agreement protocols have been designed and analysed in recent years. Most of the existing protocols face the efficiency issue. A scheme could be made efficient using lightweight cryptographic operations such as hash functions, XOR operation, etc. However, to control the leakage of password, a biometric-based authentication approach can be adopted. Keeping the focus on these points, the proposed scheme is designed. It has attributes of secure communication, mutual authentication and efficient computation, as well as user anonymity. The security proof is proclaimed using the widely recognised random oracle model, which indicates that the proposed scheme is provably secure under any probabilistic polynomial-time adversary. Moreover, the proposed scheme achieves all desirable security attributes of authentication protocols, which is justified using informal security analysis. The simulation of the proposed scheme is done using the automated validation of internet security protocols and applications tool,which shows that the proposed scheme is safe. Furthermore, the proposed scheme is found to be computationally efficient when compared with the related schemes.

    • A secure authentication framework for WSN-based safety monitoring in coal mines


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      Underground coal mines are considered as one of the most dangerous workspaces as many hazardous factors regularly cause accidents. It may be avoided by real-time monitoring of environmental parameters (gas, temperature, the width of walls, etc.) of underground tunnels. Nowadays, wireless sensor network (WSN) is widely used for safety monitoring of coal mines. However, any kind of interception, modification and interruption of transmission of environmental parameters can mislead the professionals that might lead to amajor accident. Therefore, security is an essential issue for WSN-based safety monitoring. Sensors in WSN have limited computational power and storage capacity, which creates a challenge to design authentication and keyagreement (AKA) scheme with low computational cost. To address these issues, As this scheme is light-weight and provides mutual authentication (MA), sensor anonymity (SA) and user anonymity (UA), we have considered this scheme for a case study. We first propose the cryptanalysis of this scheme, in which we prove that this scheme fails to resist sensor node compromise (SNC), stolen smart card (SSC) and user impersonation (UI) attacks. To counteract these attacks and to provide efficient authentication scheme, we propose a lightweight AKA scheme for WSN-based safety monitoring in coal mines. We simulated the scheme on AVISPA tool. We used the random oracle model (ROM) to perform formal security analysis and also performed informal security analysis. These analyses demonstrate that the proposed scheme is secure and invulnerable to various known attacks. We compared the proposed scheme to other related schemes regarding security features and computational cost. Our scheme requires comparable computational cost and is more secure than related schemes.

    • 1-out-of-2: post-quantum oblivious transfer protocols based on multivariate public key cryptography


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      Oblivious transfer (OT) is a fundamental cryptographic primitive. It is developed for the efficient and feasible implementation of most advanced cryptographic tasks. Today, most of the existing OT protocols’ security is based on number-theoretic assumptions. However, many number-theoretical problems are solvable by a quantum computer in polynomial time. Therefore, OT protocols with post-quantum cryptography approach are required. Multivariate cryptographic constructions are one of the potential candidates for post-quantum cryptographyas they are speedy and require only modest computational resources. This paper presents constructions of OT protocols utilizing multivariate public key cryptography (MPKC). Security of our schemes is achieved under the hardness of multivariate quadratic (MQ) problem. To the best of our knowledge, our designs are the first MPKC-based post-quantum OT protocols.

    • Lattice-based key agreement protocol under ring-LWE problem for IoT-enabled smart devices


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      Advances in communication technologies along with the availability of Internet and Internet of Things (IoT) devices enable users to acquire various services over the Internet. However, IoT devices are prone to attacks on the open communication channel. Many authenticated key agreement schemes have been introduced in the last decades to improve security, where most of the schemes are based on the classical number theoretic assumptions. Unfortunately, Shor’s algorithm provides the mechanism to solve the existing number theory-based problems such as discrete logarithm, integer factorization, etc. As a result, the hard problems based on number theory could be solved very efficiently on a quantum computer using Shor’s algorithm. Therefore, the design of a protocol is required that can resist all known attacks by quantum computers. To address the security issues raised by Shor’s algorithm, we propose a lattice-based key agreement protocol under ring learning with errors (RLWE). Security analysis of the proposed protocol is also presented, where both informal security andformal security analyses are followed. The analysis of security clearly indicates that the proposed scheme is provably secure under a random oracle model. In addition we study the performance of the proposed scheme, which shows the enhancement in terms of performance.

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