Articles written in Sadhana

    • Optimal sizing of energy storage system for microgrids

      Babak Mozafari Sirus Mohammadi

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      Microgrids (MGs) are Low Voltage distribution networks comprising various distributed generators (DG), storage devices and controllable loads that can operate either interconnected or isolated from the main distribution grid as a controlled entity. Energy storage system (ESS) is a vital part of an MG. In this paper, a methodology is proposed for the optimal allocation and economic analysis of ESS in MGs on the basis of net present value (NPV). As the optimal operation of an MG strongly depends on the arrangement and allocation of its ESS, economic operation strategies and optimal allocation methods of the ESS devices are required for the MG. Self-adaptive Bee Swarm Optimization (SBSO) algorithm is applied to optimize the operation strategies and capacities of ESS in MGs in order to find maximal NPV, the generation schedule of ESS and distributed generation sources. This paper is to suggest, among those available ESS, the optimal sizes and types of them and their optimal arrangement, such that the total NPV achieved during the system operational lifetime period is maximized. After introducing the methodology, a case study is presented for illustration.

    • Presenting an economic interaction bi-level model between electricity retailer and customer in bilateral electricity market contract


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      Players, especially electricity retailers have an important role in achieving optimal economic models in the electricity market. They act as intermediaries between customers and energy suppliers. In this regard, this study proposed an interactive bi-level model in bilateral electricity contracts from the retailer’sviewpoint. At the first level of this interaction, the retailer maximizes its profit by selecting some customers and determining the length of the bilateral contract with each customer. At the second level, customer cost is minimized based on new interactive parameters that are introduced for maximum interaction. In this regard, the optimal amount of energy sales to each customer is also determined based on the proposed bi-level model. Finally, after linearization and determination of the single-level equivalent of the proposed model, the mixedinteger linear programming (MILP) model will be implemented in GAMS software and solved via the CPLEX solver. The results indicate the effect of the proposed interactive model on maximizing retailer profit and minimizing customer costs in bilateral electricity contracts.

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