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    • The effect of slot dimensions and its vertical and horizontal position on the scour around bridge abutments with vertical walls


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      Scouring is one of the major threats to the stability of bridge abutments constructed over rivers. The present study investigated the usefulness of abutment slots in reducing the scour depth around bridge abutmentswith vertical walls, experimentally. Nine experiments with no slot and hundred experiments with slots were conducted in clear water conditions. Four subcritical flow conditions (Froude number less than 1) were investigated. For each flow condition, 25 different slot models having different sizes, and vertical and horizontal positions were considered. The results indicated that the slots having heights equivalent to half of the flow depth are more effective in reducing scouring if they are located closer to the bed. Increasing the slot height improvesthe performance. The best performance is achieved when the slot begins from the water surface and extends below the bed (equal to the scour depth in the model without the slot). Further, the results showed that the greater the distance of the slot is from the abutment nose and closer it is to the channel wall, the more effective the slot would be. Therefore, the most effective slot model is the model in which the slot height equals the distance from the water surface to below the bed, and when it is attached to the channel wall. For different slot models, in different flow conditions, the percentage of reduction of scour depth varies from 20 to 100%.

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