Articles written in Sadhana

    • Experimental investigation of spray characteristics of kerosene and ethanol-blended kerosene using a gas turbine hybrid atomizer


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      Gas turbines have wide application as prime movers in transportation and power generating sectors,most of which are driven by fossil fuels like kerosene. The conventional fuels are associated with problems of air pollution, and the fuel reserves are getting depleted gradually. Addition of ethanol in kerosene leads to better spraying characteristics. The present work deals with the spray characteristics of pure kerosene and 10%-ethanol-blended (by volume) kerosene using a novel gas-turbine hybrid atomizer. Here the inner air and outer airenter in the same and opposite directions, respectively, with respect to the fuel flow direction into the atomizer and a high swirling effect occurs outside the nozzle. The fuel stream is sandwiched between two annular air streams and the flow rate of inner and outer air is varied continuously. Various spray stages like distorted pencil,onion, tulip and fully developed spray regimes have been observed. The breakup length, cone angle and sheet width of the fuel stream are analysed directly from backlit imaging for different fuel and air flow rates. From the image processing, it is observed that breakup occurs at an early stage for 10%-ethanol-blended kerosene due to low viscosity of ethanol. It is also observed that at higher air flow rate, breakup occurs at an early stage due toturbulent nature of the fuel stream.

    • Identification and early prediction of lean blowout in premixed flames


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      Lean premixed combustion is a state-of-the-art technology to meet the stringent emission norms, especially to reduce the NOx emission. In the present study, we focus on the transition to lean blowout of premixed flames. The main objective of the study is to explore some important measures for prediction of leanblowout as the existing methods are not always suitable in early detection of blowout in case of premixed flames. We further consider different cases through which lean condition can be attained. For such cases, we first discussthe flame dynamics prior to blowout. Among different statistical measures, mean, median, root mean square and coefficient of variance of heat release rate fluctuations are found to be useful in blowout prediction. On the otherhand, skewness and excess of kurtosis do not show any predictive quality. We also observe that the flickering frequency defined in a specific manner also shows a significant variation near lean blowout. Further, the meanfrequency evaluated using Hilbert transform is found to show indication of LBO well before its occurrence. Therefore, the frequency analysis along with statistical analysis of the heat release rate oscillations is found to be very relevant in the context of blowout prediction and can be applied in the practical combustors.

    • Flow reversal prediction of a single-phase square natural circulation loop using symbolic time series analysis


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      In the field of thermal engineering, one of the biggest concerns is the cooling of heat producing systems. For this purpose, today’s world is encouraging to use such cooling systems which are free from any active components (passive systems) for its high reliability and compact size. For this reason, to establishcooling by transferring heat from one place (source) to another (sink) passive system like natural circulation loop (NCL) is highly used. Fluid flow dynamics of the NCL is changing with the increase in heater power which is used as the source for the simulation. We found steady flow dynamics for the comparatively low power of heat, and with the rise in the power first, we saw the oscillatory flow dynamics and then found flow reversal characteristics. This paper presents a novel strategy for the early prediction of flow reversal phenomenon in NCLusing symbolic analysis of time series data. This time series data is found from the numerical simulation, and for the proper study, we are considering data after the initial transient part is overcome. Total time series data is transformed into a symbol string by partitioning into a finite number of specified symbolised groups. The state probability vector is calculated based on the number of occurrences of each symbol group. Present work is a single-phase study, and according to our geometry, we can provide a maximum 800 W heater power to stay in the single-phase. Therefore, for the early prediction of flow reversal in NCL, state probability vector evaluated at 800 W heater power which is the most undesirable state (chaotic data), and this is considered as the reference vector. The difference of the reference state vector from the current state vector is used as a parameter for early detection of flow reversal. It can be observed from the results that this difference changes significantly when the system is sufficiently away from the flow reversal.

    • Special Issue: First International Conference on Mechanical Engineering (INCOM-2018)


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      This special issue contains selected papers from among those presented at the ‘‘First International Conference on Mechanical Engineering (INCOM)’’, 2018 held from 4 to 6 January, 2018 at Jadavpur University, Kolkata. The conferencewas organized by the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University. Around 200 papers were presented at the conference in wide ranging areas of mechanical engineering. Based on a preliminary scrutiny, some papers, mostly based on fundamental areas of mechanical engineering, wereshortlisted for consideration of publication in the special issue of Sadhana. The authors of the shortlisted papers were invited to submit extended versions of their works presented at the conference. The submitted papers were reviewedfollowing the review protocol of Sadhana. After multiple rounds of review, eleven papers were finally selected. These papers, apart from being of high quality that meets the standards of the journal, represent different areas like solidmechanics and materials, fluid-structure interaction, heat transfer, combustion and dynamic analysis of mechanical systems.

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