Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics

    • Random matrix model for disordered conductors

      Zafar Ahmed Sudhir R Jain

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      We present a random matrix ensemble where real, positive semi-definite matrix elements, x, are log-normal distributed, exp[−log2(x)]. We show that the level density varies with energy, E, as 2/(1+E) for large E, in the unitary family, consistent with the expectation for disordered conductors. The two-level correlation function is studied for the unitary family and found to be largely of the universal form despite the fact that the level density has a non-compact support. The results are based on the method of orthogonal polynomials (the Stieltjes-Wigert polynomials here). An interesting random walk problem associated with the joint probability distribution of the ensuing ensemble is discussed and its connection with level dynamics is brought out. It is further proved that Dyson’s Coulomb gas analogy breaks down whenever the confining potential is given by a transcendental function for which there exist orthogonal polynomials.

    • Scarcity of real discrete eigenvalues in non-analytic complex $\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric potentials

      Zafar Ahmed

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      We find that a non-differentiability occurring whether in real or imaginary part of a complex $\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric potential causes a scarcity of the real discrete eigenvalues despite the real part alone possessing an infinite spectrum. We demonstrate this by perturbing the real potentials $x^{2}$ and $|x|$ by imaginary $\mathcal{PT}$ -symmetric potentials $ix|x|$ and $ix$, respectively.

    • An update on coherent scattering from complex non-PT-symmetric Scarf II potential with new analytic forms


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      The versatile and exactly solvable Scarf II potential has been predicting, confirming and demonstrating interesting phenomena in complex PT-symmetric sector, most impressively. However, for the non-PT-symmetric sector, it has gone underutilised. Here, we present the most simple analytic forms for the scattering coefficients $(T (k), R(k), | det S(k)|)$. On the one hand, these forms demonstrate earlier effects and confirm the recent ones. On the other hand, they make new predictions – all simple and analytical. We show the possibilities of both self-dual and non-self-dual spectral singularities (NSDSS) in two non-PT sectors (potentials). The former one is not accompanied by time-reversed coherent perfect absorption (CPA) and gives rise to the parametrically controlled splitting of spectral singularity (SS) into a finite number of complex conjugate pairs of eigenvalues (CCPEs). NSDSS behave just oppositely: CPA but no splitting of SS. We demonstrate a one-sided reflectionlessness without invisibility. Most importantly, we bring out a surprising coexistence of both real discrete spectrum and a single SS in a fixed potential. Nevertheless, so far, the complex Scarf II potential is not known to be pseudo-Hermitian ($η ^{−1}Hη = H^{†})$ under a metric of the type $η(x)$.

    • PT-symmetric potentials with imaginary asymptotic saturation


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      We point out that PT-symmetric potentials V$_{PT}$(x) having imaginary asymptotic saturation, V$_{PT}$(x = ±∞) = ±iV$_1$, V$_1$ ∈$ \mathbb{R}$ are devoid of scattering states and spectral singularity. We show the existence of real (positive and negative) discrete spectrum both with and without complex conjugate pair(s) of eigenvalues (CCPEs). If the eigenstates are arranged in the ascending order of the real part of the discrete eigenvalues, the initial states have few nodes but latter ones oscillate fast. Both real and imaginary parts of ψn(x) vanish asymptotically, and|ψn(x)| are nodeless. For the CCPEs, these are asymmetric and peaking on the left (right) and for real energies these are symmetric and peaking at the origin. For CCPEs E$_{±}$, the eigenstates ψ± follow the interesting property, |ψ+(x)| = N|ψ−(−x)|, N ∈ $ \mathbb{R$^+$}

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