• V K Aswal

      Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics

    • Magnetic behaviour of nano-particles of Fe2.9Zn0.1O4

      Subhash Chander Sudhish Kumar Anjali Krishnamurthy Bipin K Srivastava V K Aswal

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      DC magnetization measurements are reported in the temperature range 20–100 K on a poly-disperse nano-particle sample of the spinel ferrite Fe2.9Zn0.1O4 with a log-normal size distribution of median diameter 43.6 Å and standard deviation 0.58. Outside a core of ordered spins, moments in surface layer are disordered. Results also show some similarities with conventional spin glasses. Blocking temperature exhibits a near linear variation with two-third power of the applied magnetic field and magnetizationM evolves nearly linearly with logarithm of timet. Magnetic anisotropy has been estimated by analysing theM-logt curve. Anisotropy values show a large increase over that of bulk particle samples. Major contribution to this enhancement comes from the disordered surface spins.

    • Preface

      R Mukhopadhyay V K Aswal V C Rakhecha

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    • Small-angle neutron scattering from micellar solutions

      V K Aswal P S Goyal

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      Micellar solutions are the suspension of the colloidal aggregates of the sur-factant molecules in aqueous solutions. The structure (shape and size) and the interaction of these aggregates, referred to as micelles, depend on the molecular architecture of the surfactant molecule, presence of additives and the solution conditions such as temperature, concentration etc. This paper gives the usefulness of small-angle neutron scattering to the study of micellar solutions with some of our recent results.

    • Small-angle neutron and dynamic light scattering study of gelatin coacervates

      B Mohanty V K Aswal P S Goyal H B Bohidar

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      The state of intermolecular aggregates and that of folded gelatin molecules could be characterized by dynamic laser light and small-angle neutron scattering experiments, which implied spontaneous segregation of particle sizes preceding coacervation, which is a liquid-liquid phase transition phenomenon. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) data analysis revealed two particle sizes until precipitation was reached. The smaller particles having a diameter of ∼50 nm (stable nanoparticles prepared by coacervation method) were detected in the supernatant, whereas the inter-molecular aggregates having a diameter of ∼400 nm gave rise to coacervation. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments revealed that typical mesh size of the networks exist in polymer dense phase (coacervates) [1]. Analysis of the SANS structure factor showed the presence of two length scales associated with this system that were identified as the correlation length or mesh size, ξ = 10.6 Å of the network and the other is the size of inhomogeneities = 21.4 Å. Observations were discussed based on the results obtained from SANS experiments performed in 5% (w/v) gelatin solution at 60°C (ξ = 50 Å, ζ = 113 Å) and 5% (w/v) gel at 28°C (ξ = 47 Å, ζ = 115 Å) in aqueous phase [2] indicating smaller length scales in coacervate as compared to sol and gel.

    • Sphere-to-rod transition of triblock copolymer micelles at room temperature

      R Ganguly V K Aswal P A Hassan I K Gopalakrishnan J V Yakhmi

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      A room temperature sphere-to-rod transition of the polyethylene oxide-polypropylene oxide-polyethylene oxide-based triblock copolymer, (PEO)20(PPO)70 (PEO)20 micelles have been observed in aqueous medium under the influence of ethanol and sodium chloride. Addition of 5–10% ethanol induces a high temperature sphere-to-rod transition of the micelles, which is brought to room temperature upon addition of NaCl. The inference about the change in the shape of the micelles has been drawn from small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and viscosity studies.

    • Temperature dependent small-angle neutron scattering of CTABr—magnetic fluid emulsion

      V K Aswal J V Joshi P S Goyal Rajesh Patel R V Upadhyay R V Mehta

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      Small-angle neutron scattering studies have been carried out to check the structural integrity of citryltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr) micelles in a magnetic fluid for different magnetic fluid concentrations at two different temperatures 303 and 333 K. It is found that the CTABr micelles grow with increasing magnetic fluid concentration and there is a decrease in the micellar size with increase in temperature.

    • Small-angle neutron scattering studies of nonionic surfactant: Effect of sugars

      K Shivaji Sharma J V Joshi V K Aswal P S Goyal A K Rakshit

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      Micellar solution of nonionic surfactantn-dodecyloligo ethyleneoxide surfactant, decaoxyethylene monododecyl ether [CH3(CH2)11(OCH2CH2)10OH], C12E10 in D2O solution have been analysed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) at different temperatures (30, 45 and 60° C) both in the presence and absence of sugars. The structural parameters like micelle shape and size, aggregation number and micellar density have been determined. It is found that the micellar structure significantly depends on the temperature and concentration of sugars. The micelles are found to be prolate ellipsoids at 30° C and the axial ratio of the micelle increases with the increase in temperature. The presence of lower concentration of sugar reduces the size of micelles and it grows at higher concentration of sugar. The structure of micelles is almost independent of the different types of sugars used.

    • Small-angle neutron scattering study of aggregate structures of multi-headed pyridinium surfactants in aqueous solution

      J Haldar V K Aswal P S Goyal S Bhattacharya

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      The aggregate structures of a set of novel single-chain surfactants bearing one, two and three pyridinium headgroups have been studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). It is found that the nature of aggregate structures of these cationic surfactants depend on the number of headgroups present in the surfactants. The single-headed pyridinium surfactant forms the lamellar structure, whereas surfactants with double and triple headgroups form micelles in water. The aggregates shrink in size with increase in the number of headgroups in the surfactants. The aggregation number (N) continually decreases and the fractional charge (α) increases with more number of headgroups on the surfactants. The semimajor axis (a) and semiminor axis (b = c) of the micelle also decrease with the increase in the number of headgroups in the surfactants. This indicates that hydrocarbon chains in such micelles prepared from multiheaded surfactants adopt bent conformation and no longer stay in extended conformation.

    • Counterion condensation in ionic micelles as studied by a combined use of SANS and SAXS

      V K Aswal P S Goyal H Amenitsch S Bernstorff

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      We report a combined use of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to the study of counterion condensation in ionic micelles. Small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering measurements have been carried out on two surfactants cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr) and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTACl), which are similar but having different counterions. SANS measurements show that CTABr surfactant forms much larger micelles than CTACl. This is explained in terms of higher condensation of Br counterions than Cl counterions. SAXS data on these systems suggest that the Br counterions are condensed around the micelles over smaller thickness than those of Cl counterions.

    • Contrast variation SANS experiments to the study of detergent-induced micellization of block copolymers

      V K Aswal J Kohlbrecher

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      PEO—PPO—PEO triblock copolymer P85 [(EO)26(PO)39(EO)26] dissolves as unimers and detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) forms micelles in aqueous solution at 20°C. The mixing of detergent with triblock copolymer induces the micellization of triblock copolymers. Contrast variation small-angle neutron scattering measurements show that triblock copolymer forms mixed micelles with detergent and the mixing of two components in the mixed micelles is uniform.

    • Magnetic behaviour of nano-particles of Fe2.8Zn0.2O4

      Subhash Chander Seema Lakhanpal Anjali Krishnamurthy Bipin K Srivastava V K Aswal

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      Magnetization measurements are reported on a nano-particle sample of Znsubstituted spinel ferrite Fe2.8Zn0.2O4 in the temperature range 20–300 K. Analysis of small-angle neutron scattering data shows the sample to have a log-normal particle size distribution of median diameter 64.4 Å and standard deviation 0.38. Magnetization evolves over a long period of timet going nearly linearly with logt. Magnetic anisotropy, estimated by fitting M-logt curve, shows many fold increase over that of bulk particle sample. Major enhancement owes to disordered moments in surface layer. In the nano-particle state as well increasing amount of Zn causes anisotropy to decrease.

    • Effect of substitution on aniline in inducing growth of anionic micelles

      Gunjan Garg V K Aswal S K Kulshreshtha P A Hassan

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      Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements were carried out on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles in the presence of three different hydrophobic salts, i.e. aniline hydrochloride,o-toluidine hydrochloride andm-toluidine hydrochloride. All these salts induce a uniaxial growth of micelles to form prolate ellipsoidal structures. A progressive decrease in the surface charge of the micelles was observed with the addition of salts followed by a rapid growth of the micelles. The presence of a methyl substitution at the ortho position of aniline does not alter the growth behavior significantly. However, when the substitution is at meta position micellar growth is favored at lower salt concentration than that is observed for aniline. This can be explained in terms of the difference in the chemical environments of the substituents at the ortho and meta positions.

    • Small-angle neutron scattering studies of sodium butyl benzene sulfonate aggregates in aqueous solution

      O R Pal V G Gaikar J V Joshi P S Goyal V K Aswal

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      The aggregation behaviour of a hydrotrope, sodiumn-butyl benzene sulfonate (Na-NBBS), in aqueous solutions is investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Nearly ellipsoidal aggregates of Na-NBBS at concentrations well above its minimum hydrotrope concentration were detected by SANS. The hydrotrope seems to form self-assemblies with aggregation number of 36–40 with a substantial charge on the aggregate. This aggregation number is weakly affected by the hydrotrope concentration.

    • Preface

      J V Yakhmi V K Aswal K G Bhushan

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    • Small-angle neutron scattering study of structural evolution of different phases in protein solution

      V K Aswal S Chodankar J Kohlbrecher R Vavrin A G Wagh

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      Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the structural evolution of different phases in protein solution leading to crystallization, denaturation and gelation. The protein solution under crystallization mostly consists of monomers and dimers, and higher-mers are not observed as they are perhaps formed in very small numbers. The onset and the rate of crystallization strongly depend on the salt concentration. Protein denaturation on addition of surfactant occurs due to the formation of micelle-like clusters along the unfolded polypeptide chains of the protein. The structure of such protein{surfactant complex is found to be independent of the size of the micelles in their pure surfactant solutions. The structure of temperature-induced protein gels shows a fractal structure. Rheology of these gels shows a strong dependence on varying pH or protein concentration, whereas the structure of such gels is found to be similar.

    • Small angle neutron scattering studies of mixed micelles of sodium cumene sulphonate with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulphate

      K V Padalkar V G Gaikar V K Aswal

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      The aqueous solutions of sodium cumene sulphonate (NaCS) and its mixtures with each of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) are characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). NaCS when added to CTAB solution leads to the formation of long rod-shaped micelles with a dramatic increase in the CTAB aggregation number. Its addition to SDS on the other hand results in the formation of smaller mixed micelles where part of SDS molecules in the micelle is replaced by NaCS molecules.

    • Effects of sintering on microstructure and dielectric response in YCrO3 nanoceramic

      J Bahadur D Sen S Mazumder V K Aswal V Bedekar R Shukla A K Tyagi

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      Effects of sintering on pore morphology and dielectric response have been investigated. Pore structure has been probed by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). It has been observed that the size distribution becomes less polydisperse with a slight modification in the distribution as sintering temperature is increased. Dielectric response in the frequency range 0.02–1000 kHz is significantly altered by modification of pore structure because of sintering. A transition from non-Debye type to near-Debye type response has been observed as the sintering temperature is increased.

    • Small angle neutron scattering study of U(VI) third phase formation in HNO3/DHDECMP–𝑛-dodecane system

      K V Lohithakshan V K Aswal S K Aggarwal

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      Small angle neutron scattering studies (SANS) were carried out to understand the formation of third phase in DHDECMP–dodecane–UO2(NO3)2/HNO3 system. It was observed that third phase formation takes place due to the formation of UO2(NO3)2. DHDECMP reverse micelles in the dodecane phase. SANS data obtained were interpreted with particle interaction model using Baxter sticky spheres model.

    • Small angle neutron scattering study of doxorubicin–surfactant complexes encapsulated in block copolymer micelles

      Jayita Bhattacharjee Gunjan Verma V K Aswal P A Hassan

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      Self-assembling behaviour of block copolymers and their ability to evade the immune system through polyethylene oxide stealth makes it an attractive candidate for drug encapsulation. Micelles formed by polyethylene oxide–polypropylene oxide–polyethylene oxide triblock copolymers (PEO–PPO–PEO), pluronic P123, have been employed for encapsulating the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin hydrochloride. The binding affinity of doxorubicin within the micelle carrier is enhanced through complex formation of drug and anionic surfactant, aerosol OT (AOT). Electrostatic binding of doxorubicin with negatively charged surfactants leads to the formation of hydrophobic drug–surfactant complexes. Surfactant-induced partitioning of the anti-cancer drug into nonpolar solvents such as chloroform is investigated. SANS measurements were performed on pluronic P123 mi-celles in the presence of drug–surfactant complex. No significant changes in the structure of the micelles are observed upon drug encapsulation. This demonstrates that surfactant–drug complexes can be encapsulated in block copolymer micelles without disrupting the structure of aggregates.

    • Tuning intermicellar potential of Triton X-100– anthranilic acid mixed micelles

      Gunjan Verma V K Aswal S K Kulshreshtha C Manohar P A Hassan Eric W Kaler

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      Structural parameters of micelles formed by Triton X-100 in the presence of solubilized anthranilic acid at different pH values was investigated using light scattering and small angle neutron scattering. Analysis of the SANS data indicate that micelles are oblate ellipsoidal in nature with little variation in the dimensions, in the investigated pH range (from 0.5 to 6.0). The interaction potential of the micelles shows a minimum closer to the isoelectric point of anthranilic acid. A similar variation is observed in the cloud point of the micelles with pH. The observed variation in the interaction potential with pH of the micellar solution can be explained in terms of the reversal of charge on anthranilic acid due to shift in the acid–base equilibrium. The variation in interaction potential and cloud point with pH is modelled using Coulombic repulsion of charged molecules at the micelle interface.

    • Structural investigation of viscoelastic micellar water/CTAB/NaNO3 solutions

      K Kuperkar L Abezgauz D Danino G Verma P A Hassan V K Aswal D Varade P Bahadur

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      A highly viscoelastic worm-like micellar solution is formed in hexa-decyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in the presence of sodium nitrate (NaNO3). A gradual increase in micellar length with increasing NaNO3 was assumed from the rheological measurements where the zero-shear viscosity ($\eta_{0}$) versus NaNO3 concentration curve exhibits a maximum. However, upon increase in temperature, the viscosity decreases. Changes in the structural parameters of the micelles with addition of NaNO3 were inferred from small angle neutron scattering measurements (SANS). The intensity of scattered neutrons in the low 𝑞 region was found to increase with increasing NaNO3 concentration. This suggests an increase in the size of the micelles and/or decrease of intermicellar interaction with increasing salt concentration. Analysis of the SANS data using prolate ellipsoidal structure and Yukawa form of interaction potential between mi-celles indicate that addition of NaNO3 leads to a decrease in the surface charge of the ellipsoidal micelles which induces micellar growth. Cryo-TEM measurements support the presence of thread-like micelles in CTAB and NaNO3.

    • Small angle neutron scattering study on the aggregation behaviour of PEO–PPO–PEO copolymers in the presence of a hydrophobic diol

      B Bharatiya V K Aswal P Bahadur

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      Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on aqueous solutions of four polyethylene oxide–polypropylene oxide–polyethylene oxide block copolymers (commercially known as Pluronic®)F88, P85, F127 and P123 in the presence of hydrophobic C14Diol (also known as Surfynol® 104) reveal information on micellization, micellar size and micellar transitions. While most hydrophilic F88 (with least PPO/PEO ratio) remained unimers in water at 30◦ C, other copolymers formed micellar solutions. Surfynol® 104 is sparingly soluble in water to only about $\sim 0.1$ wt%, but on addition to pluronic solution, it gets incorporated in the micellar region of block copolymer which leads to increase in aggregation number and transformation of spherical to ellipsoidal micelles. The added diol-induced micellization in F88, though hydrophilic copolymers F88 and F127 did not show any appreciable micellar growth or shape changes as observed for P85 and P123 (which are comparatively more hydrophobic). The SANS results on copolymer pairs with same molecular weight PPO but different % PEO (viz. F88 and P85, F127 and P123) and with same molecular weight PEO but different PPO (F88 and F127) reveal that the copolymer with large PPO/PEO ratio facilitate micellar transition in the presence of diol. An increase in temperature and presence of added electrolyte (sodium chloride) in the solution further enhances these effects. The micellar parameters for these systems were found out using available software and are reported.

    • Small angle neutron scattering studies on protein denaturation induced by different methods

      S Chodankar V K Aswal J Kohlbrecher R Vavrin A G Wagh

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      Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study conformational changes in protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) as induced by varying temperature and in the presence of protein denaturating agents urea and surfactant. BSA has pro-late ellipsoidal shape and is found to be stable up to 60°C above which it denaturates and subsequently leads to aggregation. The protein solution exhibits a fractal structure at temperatures above 64°C, with fractal dimension increasing with temperature. BSA protein is found to unfold in the presence of urea at concentrations greater than 4 M and acquires a random coil Gaussian chain conformation. The conformation of the unfolded protein in the presence of surfactant has been determined directly using contrast variation SANS measurements by contrast matching surfactant molecules. The protein acquires a random coil Gaussian conformation on unfolding with its radius of gyration increasing with increase in surfactant concentration

    • Small angle neutron scattering studies on the interaction of cationic surfactants with bovine serum albumin

      Nuzhat Gull S Chodankar V K Aswal Kabir-Ud-Din

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      The structure of the protein–surfactant complex of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and cationic surfactants has been studied by small angle neutron scattering. At low concentrations, the CTAB monomers are observed to bind to the protein leading to an increase in its size. On the other hand at high concentrations, surfactant molecules aggregate along the unfolded polypeptide chain of the protein resulting in the formation of a fractal structure representing a necklace model of micelle-like clusters randomly distributed along the polypeptide chain. The fractal dimension as well as the size and number of micelles attached to the complex have been determined.

    • Small angle neutron scattering study of mixed micelles of oppositely charged surfactants

      J V Joshi V K Aswal P S Goyal

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      Structures of mixed micelles of oppositely charged surfactants dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) have been studied using small angle neutron scattering. The concentration of one of the components was kept fixed (0.3 M) and that of another varied in the range 0 to 0.1 M. The aggregation number and micellar size increase and fractional charge decreases dramatically with the addition of small amount of oppositely charged surfactant. The effect of addition of SDS on DTAB is significantly different from that of the addition of DTAB on SDS. The contrast variation SANS experiments using deuterated surfactant suggests the homogeneous mixing of two components in mixed micellar system.

    • Small angle neutron scattering study of temperature-independent formulation of mixed micellar structures

      V K Aswal A G Wagh

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      SANS measurements have been performed on mixed systems of ionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and nonionic surfactant polyoxyethylene 10 lauryl ether (C12E10). The total concentration of the mixed system was kept fixed (10 wt%) and the ionic to nonionic surfactant ratio varied in the range 0 to 1. The temperature effect on the structures of mixed micelles has been studied for temperatures between 30 and 75° C. Micelles of pure ionic and nonionic surfactants show opposite trends when the temperature is increased. Sizes of pure ionic micelles decrease and those of nonionic micelles increase with increase in temperature. We show a formulation balancing these two effects which is temperature-independent and consists of about 25% of ionic surfactants in the mixed system. Contrast variation SANS measurements by contrast matching one of the surfactant components to the solvent suggest homogeneous single mixed micelles of the two components in the mixed systems.

    • Pressure-induced structural transition of nonionic micelles

      V K Aswal R Vavrin J Kohlbrecher A G Wagh

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      We report dynamic light scattering and small angle neutron scattering studies of the pressure-induced structural transition of nonionic micelles of surfactant polyoxyethylene 10 lauryl ether (C12E10) in the pressure range 0 to 2000 bar. Measurements have been performed on 1 wt% C12E10 in aqueous solution with and without the addition of KF. Micelles undergo sphere to lamellar structural transitions as the pressure is increased. On addition of KF, rod-like micelles exist at ambient pressure, which results in rod-like to lamellar structural transition at a much lower pressure in the presence of KF. Micellar structural transitions have been observed to be reversible.

    • A small angle neutron scattering study on the mixtures of pluronic L121 and anionic surfactant AOT

      G Ghosh V K Aswal D Varade

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      Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments have been carried out on the micellar solutions containing mixtures of a hydrophobic triblock copolymer (L121, EO5PO68EO5) and a hydrophobic anionic surfactant (AOT, sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulphosuccinate) in water with varying ratio (𝑅) of AOT to L121 for $R = 0.15$, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.6. It is known that either L121 or AOT alone forms vesicles in water, but in the mixture with appropriate ratio of the two components a thermodynamically stable, isotropic solution of apparently small micelle-like aggregates is formed. We find that these micelles are prolate ellipsoidal.

    • Structure of Co–Zn ferrite ferrofluid: A small angle neutron scattering analysis

      Prashant Acharya Rucha Desai V K Aswal R V Upadhyay

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      A hydrothermal synthesis route is used to synthesize nanomagnetic particles of Co0.3Zn0.7Fe2O4 ferrite ferrofluids with particle diameter ranging from 5.5–9 nm. XRD analysis shows the formation of a single phase spinel structure. EDX results confirm the stoichiometric composition of the cations. Small angle neutron scattering technique is used to determine the size and size distribution of Co0.3Zn0.7Fe2O4 ferrofluid. The sizes thus obtained are in the range of 5.4 to 8.4 nm. These results are in agreement with magnetic measurements.

    • Small angle neutron scattering and small angle X-ray scattering studies of platinum-loaded carbon foams

      P U Sastry V K Aswal A G Wagh

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      The morphology of carbon nanofoam samples comprising platinum nanoparticles dispersed in the matrix was characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Results show that the structure of pores of carbon matrix exhibits a mass (pore) fractal nature and the average radius of the platinum particles is about 2.5 nm. The fractal dimension as well as the size distribution parameters of platinum particles varies markedly with the platinum content and annealing temperature. Transmission electron micrographs of the samples corroborate the SANS and SAXS results.

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