Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics

    • A study of fractional Schrödinger equation composed of Jumarie fractional derivative


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      In this paper we have derived the fractional-order Schrödinger equation composed of Jumarie fractional derivative. The solution of this fractional-order Schrödinger equation is obtained in terms of Mittag–Leffler function with complex arguments, and fractional trigonometric functions. A few important properties of the fractional Schrödinger equation are then described for the case of particles in one-dimensional infinite potential well. One of the motivations for using fractional calculus in physical systems is that the space and time variables, which we often deal with, exhibit coarse-grained phenomena. This means infinite simal quantities cannot be arbitrarily taken to zero – rather they are non-zero with a minimum spread. This type of non-zero spread arises in the microscopic to mesoscopic levels of system dynamics, which means that, if we denote x as the point in space and t as the point in time, then limit of the differentials dx (and dt ) cannot be taken as zero. To take the concept of coarse graining into account, use the infinite simal quantities as $(\Delta x)^\alpha$ (and $(\Delta t)^\alpha$) with 0 < $\alpha$ < 1; called as ‘fractional differentials’. For arbitrarily small $\Delta x$ and $\Delta t$ (tending towards zero), these ‘fractional’ differentials are greaterthan $\Delta x$ (and $\Delta t$), i.e. $(\Delta x)^\alpha$ > $\Delta x$ and $(\Delta t)^\alpha$ > $\Delta t$. This way of defining the fractional differentials helps us to use fractional derivatives in the study of dynamic systems.

    • Fractional Klein–Gordon equation composed of Jumarie fractional derivative and its interpretation by a smoothness parameter


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      Klein–Gordon equation is one of the basic steps towards relativistic quantum mechanics. In this paper, we have formulated fractional Klein–Gordon equation via Jumarie fractional derivative and found two types of solutions. Zero-mass solution satisfies photon criteria and non-zero mass satisfies general theory of relativity. Further, we have developed rest mass condition which leads us to the concept of hidden wave. Classical Klein–Gordon equation fails to explain a chargeless system as well as a single-particle system. Using the fractional Klein–Gordon equation, we can overcome the problem. The fractional Klein–Gordon equation also leads to the smoothness parameter which is the measurement of the bumpiness of space. Here, by using this smoothness parameter, we have defined and interpreted the various cases.

    • Higher-dimensional fractional time-independent Schrödinger equation via fractional derivative with generalised pseudoharmonic potential


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      In this paper, we obtain approximate bound-state solutions of $N$-dimensional time-independent fractional Schrödinger equation for the generalised pseudoharmonic potential which has the form $V(r^{\alpha}) = a_{1}r^{2\alpha} + (a_{2}/r^{2\alpha}) + a_{3}$. Here $\alpha$ (0 < $\alpha$ < 1) acts like a fractional parameter for the space variable $r$. The entire study consists of the Jumarie-type fractional derivative and the elegance of Laplace transform. As a result, we can successfully express the approximate bound-state solution in terms of Mittag–Leffler function and fractionally defined confluent hypergeometric function. Our study may be treated as a generalisation of all previous workscarried out on this topic when $\alpha = 1$ and $N$ arbitrary. We provide numerical result of energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for a typical diatomic molecule for different α close to unity. Finally, we try to correlate our work with a Cornell potential model which corresponds to $\alpha = 1/2$ with $a_{3} = 0$ and predicts the approximate mass spectra of quarkonia.

    • Analytical study of $D$-dimensional fractional Klein–Gordon equation with a fractional vector plus a scalar potential


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      $D$-dimensional fractional Klein–Gordon equation with fractional vector and scalar potential has been studied. Both fractional potentials are taken as attractive Coulomb-type with different multiplicative parameters, namely $v$ and $s$. Jumarie-type definitions for fractional calculus have been used. We have succeeded in achieving Whittaker-type classical differential equation in fractional mode for the required eigenfunction. Fractional Whittaker equation has been manipulated using the behaviour of the eigenfunction at asymptotic distance and origin. This manipulation delivers fractional-type confluent hypergeometric equation to solve. Power series method has been employed to do the task. All the obtained results agree with the existing results in literature when fractional parameter $\alpha$ is unity. Finally, we furnish numerical results with a few eigenfunction graphs for different spatial dimensions and fractional parameters.

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