• Sanjiva Kumar

      Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics

    • A comparative performance evaluation of micro-Raman spectrograph using holographic notch filter and dielectric filter

      R P Shukla Sanjiva Kumar A K Sinha Manika Mallick S Thakur N K Sahoo

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      An indigenously designed and developed micro-Raman spectrograph, consisting of a diode-pumped solid-state green laser for the excitation of Raman scattering, a Raman imaging microscope, CCD as a detector and a notch filter, has been extensively studied to evaluate its performance. A dielectric edge filter (having 27 alternate layers of SiO2 and TiO2) and a holographic notch filter (Oriel make) have been used to block the Rayleigh scattered light from the sample to the entrance slit of the spectrograph. Holographic notch filter is found to be able to record the Raman shifts below 700 cm−1 conveniently whereas dielectric edge filter (27 layers) has enabled the spectrograph to record the Raman spectra very efficiently after a wave-number shift of 700 cm−1. It has also been observed that the instrument using the edge filter provides a peculiar spectrum consisting of three spectral lines having Raman shifts as 569, 1328 and 1393 cm−1 in the Raman spectrum of a weakly scattering sample with large reflectivity. Similarly, a spectrum consisting of multiple lines has been observed when the instrument is being operated using a holographic notch filter. These spectral lines are not observed in the case of liquid samples such as benzene, carbon tetrachloride, ethanol, diethyl ether etc. The origin of these peculiar spectral lines has been briefly discussed in the paper. Additionally, a major motivation for this work is to utilize the results for the selection of an appropriate filter depending on the type of the sample, i.e. weakly scattered and highly reflecting sample or highly scattered and low reflecting sample.

    • Optimization for sinusoidal profiles in surface relief gratings recorded on photoresist

      Sanjiva Kumar Amrita Debnath R B Tokas K Divakar Rao D V Udupa N K Sahoo

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      The formations of sinusoidal surface relief structures recorded in positive photoresist (Allresist AR-P 3120) have been studied and optimized for different recording parameters of gratings with spatial frequency of∼1200 grooves/mm.Astable sinusoidal pattern generated using a two-beam laser interferometric technique was recorded in thin films of positive photoresist deposited on glass substrates. Several gratings were generated by varying the exposure time of interference pattern and time of chemical development of exposed media. Time duration of exposure for 90 s and chemical development for 15 s were observed to be optimum for the translation of the sinusoidal interference pattern into nearly-sinusoidal profiled grooves in the gratings for a developer AR-300-26 of dilution of 2:1 (developer:de-ionized water).

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