S S Kapoor
Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics
Volume 5 Issue 3 September 1975 pp 124-143 Nuclear And Particle Physics
The phenomenon of the disappearance of the shell effects on the thermodynamic properties of nuclei with increasing excitation energy has been examined quantitatively on the basis of numerical calculations based on realistic shell model single particle level schemes. It is shown that shell effects disappear at moderate excitation energies and above these excitation energies, the thermodynamic behaviour of the nucleus is identical to that of the equivalent liquid drop model nucleus. Implications of the above feature in the interpretation of some aspects of fission of excited nuclei such as mass-asymmetry and angular anisotropy are examined. The relationship of the phenomenon of washing out of shell effects at high excitation energies with the temperature smearing method of determining ground state shell correction energies is also outlined.
Volume 6 Issue 2 February 1976 pp 64-76 Nuclear And Particle Physics
Several characteristics of fission accompanied by long range alpha particles (LRA) have been studied in the thermal neutron induced fission of235U. The kinetic energies of fission fragments and the LRA were measured with a back-to-back ionization chamber and semiconductor detectors respectively. The kinetic energies of the two fragments and the LRA in LRA fission, along with the energies of pair fragments in the normal binary fissions, were recorded event by event on a magnetic tape by means of a four-parameter data acquisition system. The data were analysed to study the dependence of different quantities in LRA fission on the fragment mass ratio, LRA energy and the total kinetic energy of the fission fragments. It is seen that the most probable energy of LRA increases significantly for near symmetric mass divisions. The total kinetic energy for all mass ratios in LRA fission is found to be (2.6±0.7) MeV larger than that in binary fission. The difference in the total kinetic energies in LRA and binary fissions is seen to be dependent on mass ratio. This result may suggest that the scission configuration in LRA fission is different for different mass ratios. Correlations between the fission fragment and LRA energies have been studied for several mass ratios. It is seen that the most probable fragment kinetic energy
Volume 8 Issue 4 April 1977 pp 315-321 Nuclear And Particle Physics
The yields and energy spectra of light charged particles emitted in the fission of235U have been measured in the neutron energy range of 100 keV to 1 MeV. The yield of long range alpha particles is found to increase around 200 keV neutron energy compared to thermal fission. A low energy component observed in the energy spectrum was assigned to the tritons emitted in fission. The yield of this triton component is seen to have a marked increase around 500 keV. These results indicate that LCP yield is influenced by the transition state level characteristics.
Volume 9 Issue 5 November 1977 pp 515-521 Atomic Physics
Monazite minerals obtained from beach sands of South India were examined for the presence of superheavy elements with photon-induced x-ray fluorescence method. The accumulated data of a number of runs each of several days duration do not show any convincing peaks above the background at the expected locations for superheavy elements which are above the present sensitivity of detection of about 10 ppm by weight for element 126. However, some intriguing features pertaining to structures in the x-ray spectra around 27 keV were observed, which are of interest for further investigations.
Volume 9 Issue 6 December 1977 pp 613-621 Nuclear And Particle Physics
Calculations of shell correction energies by the temperature smearing method for realistic single particle level schemes of finite depth potentials are described and discussed. It is found that the method provides unique values of the shell correction energies for the various shapes relevant in the fission of actinide nuclei including those shapes where breakdown of the usual Gaussian energy smearing procedure was observed.
Volume 10 Issue 3 March 1978 pp 319-327 Nuclear Physics
A method is proposed to deduce the shell correction energy corresponding to the fission transition state shape of nuclei in the mass region around 200, from an analysis of the first chance fission values of the ratio of fission to neutron widths, (Γ
Volume 22 Issue 3-4 March 1984 pp 275-282 Nuclear Physics
Fragment angular distributions in heavy ion-induced fission reactions have been analysed in terms of a two component model—fission following compound nucleus formation and fast fission events. It is seen that, contrary to the general assumption, fast fission competes with compound nucleus fission even when the composite system is formed with a spin less than the rotating liquid drop model limit for vanishing fission barrier.
Volume 24 Issue 1-2 January 1985 pp 119-130 Nuclear Physics
The nucleon exchange process between two nuclei in close proximity and its application to an explanation of fragment mass and charge distributions in fission and in heavy ion deep inelastic collisions are reviewed. An analysis of the measured correlations between the energy loss from relative motion and the fragment mass and charge variances in the heavy ion deep inelastic collisions is presented. The recent data on fragment mass and charge variances as a function of the fragment kinetic energy in thermal neutron induced fission of235U, lends added support to the hypothesis that the nucleon transport process plays a similar role both in fission and in heavy ion deep inelastic collisions.
Volume 24 Issue 1-2 January 1985 pp 155-164 Nuclear Physics
Studies of prompt radiations emitted in fission were started at Trombay in the late 1950’s by Dr R Ramanna and over the years extensive investigations on the emission of prompt neutrons, gamma ray and K x-rays in fission were carried out with neutron beams from
Volume 32 Issue 4 April 1989 pp 405-417 Nuclear Reactions
Recent developments in the study of fission and fission-like reactions are briefly reviewed. After a brief introduction of some of the important features of the fission process, binary fission and fission-like processes in heavy ion-induced reactions are discussed. It is shown that studies of the fission fragment angular distributions which provide a way to determine relative contributions of compound nucleus fission and non-equilibrium fission-like events in heavy ion-induced fission have proved to be quite valuable in investigating the very short
Volume 33 Issue 1 July 1989 pp 1-
Volume 33 Issue 1 July 1989 pp 13-20
This article gives an overview of the physics of the fission phenomenon. It provides a brief introduction to the various aspects of the fission process such as liquid drop model fission barriers, different stages of the fission process, fragment kinetic energy and mass distributions, nuclear shell effects on fission barriers, fragment angular distributions and rare fission modes.
Volume 33 Issue 1 July 1989 pp 161-174
Fragment angular distributions in fission is one of the oldest and well understood aspects of fission theory. However, recent heavy ion-induced fission and fission-like reactions have added a new dimension to this problem. We review here our present understanding of the fragment angular distribution theory in fission and fission-like reactions.
Volume 40 Issue 4 April 1993 pp 299-309
The emission spectra of prompt fission neutrons from mass and kinetic energy selected fission fragments have been measured in235U(
Volume 41 Issue 4 October 1993 pp 339-344
The measurements of fission fragment angular distributions for the system19F+232Th have been extended to the sub-barrier energies of 89.3, 91.5 and 93.6 MeV. The measured anisotropies, within errors are nearly the same over this energy region. However, the deviation of the experimental values of anisotropies from that of standard statistical model predictions increases as the bombarding energy is lowered.
Volume 53 Issue 3 September 1999 pp 521-528 Nuclear Reactions At Near And Sub-Barrier Energies
Study of heavy ion induced fusion-fission reactions at near and below barrier energies has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years, due to the observations of anomalous features in the fragment angular distributions for many target-projectile systems. Additionally there are also measurements of the fragment spin distributions and time-scales of the fusion-fission reactions, which have provided important information on the dynamics of these processes. In the present paper, the emphasis would be to highlight some of the recent experimental findings and their implications on the dynamics of the fusion-fission reactions in heavy ion collisions at near and above barrier energies.
Volume 57 Issue 2-3 August 2001 pp 355-369
Tarun Kanti Ghosh K Adcox S S Adler N Ajitanand Y Akiba J Alexander L Aphecetche Y Arai S H Aronson R Averbeck T C Awes K N Barish P D Barnes J Barrette B Bassalleck S Bathe V Baublis A Bazilevsky S Belikov F G Bellaiche S T Belyaev M J Bennett Y Berdnikov S Botelho M L Brooks D S Brown N Bruner D Bucher H Buesching V Bumazhnov G Bunce J Burward-Hoy S Butsyk T A Carey P Chand J Chang W C Chang L L Chavez S Chernichenko C Y Chi J Chiba M Chiu R K Choudhury T Christ T Chujo M S Chung P Chung V Cianciolo B A Cole D G D’Enterria G David H Delagrange A Denisov A Deshpande E J Desmond O Dietzsch B V Dinesh A Drees A Durum D Dutta K Ebisu Y V Efremenko K El Chenawi H En’yo S Esumi L Ewell T Ferdousi D E Fields S L Fokin Z Fraenkel A Franz A D Frawley S-Y Fung S Garpman T K Ghosh A Glenn A L Godoi Y Goto S V Greene M Grosse Perdekamp S K Gupta W Guryn H-Å Gustafsson J S Haggerty H Hamagaki A G Hansen H Hara E P Hartouni R Hayano N Hayashi X He T K Hemmick J Heuser J C Hill D S Ho K Homma B Hong A Hoover T Ichihara K Imai M S Ippolitov M Ishihara B V Jacak W Y Jang J Jia B M Johnson S C Johnson K S Joo S Kametani J H Kang M Kann S S Kapoor S Kelly B Khachaturov A Khanzadeev J Kikuchi D J Kim H J Kim S Y Kim Y G Kim W W Kinnison E Kistenev A Kiyomichi C Klein-Boesing S Klinksiek L Kochenda D Kochetkov V Kochetkov D Koehler T Kohama A Kozlov P J Kroon K Kurita M J Kweon Y Kwon G S Kyle R Lacey J G Lajoie J Lauret A Lebedev D M Lee M J Leitch X H Li Z Li D J Lim M X Liu X Liu Z Liu C F Maguire J Mahon Y I Makdisi V I Manko Y Mao S K Mark S Markacs G Martinez M D Marx A Masaike F Matathias T Matsumoto P L McGaughey E Melnikov M Merschmeier F Messer M Messer Y Miake T E Miller A Milov S Mioduszewski R E Mischke G C Mishra J T Mitchell A K Mohanty D P Morrison J M Moss F Mühlbacher M Muniruzzaman J Murata S Nagamiya Y Nagasaka J L Nagle Y Nakada B K Nandi J Newby L Nikkinen P Nilsson S Nishimura A S Nyanin J Nystrand E O’Brien C A Ogilvie H Ohnishi I D Ojha M Ono V Onuchin A Oskarsson L Österman I Otterlund K Oyama L Paffrath A P T Palounek V S Pantuev V Papavassiliou S F Pate T Peitzmann A N Petridis C Pinkenburg R P Pisani P Pitukhin F Plasil M Pollack K Pope M L Purschke I Ravinovich K F Read K Reygers V Riabov Y Riabov M Rosati A A Rose S S Ryu N Saito A Sakaguchi T Sakaguchi H Sako T Sakuma V Samsonov T C Sangster R Santo H D Sato S Sato S Sawada B R Schlei Y Schutz V Semenov R Seto T K Shea I Shein T-A Shibata K Shigaki T Shiina Y H Shin I G Sibiriak D Silvermyr K S Sim J Simon-Gillo C P Singh V Singh M Sivertz A Soldatov R A Soltz S Sorensen P W Stankus N Starinsky P Steinberg E Stenlund A Ster S P Stoll M Sugioka T Sugitate J P Sullivan Y Sumi Z Sun M Suzuki E M Takagui A Taketani M Tamai K H Tanaka Y Tanaka E Taniguchi M J Tannenbaum J Thomas J H Thomas T L Thomas W Tian J Tojo H Torii R S Towell I Tserruya H Tsuruoka A A Tsvetkov S K Tuli H Tydesjö N Tyurin T Ushiroda H W van Hecke C Velissaris J Velkovska M Velkovsky A A Vinogradov M A Volkov A Vorobyov E Vznuzdaev H Wang Y Watanabe S N White C Witzig F K Wohn C L Woody W Xie K Yagi S Yokkaichi G R Young I E Yushmanov W A Zajc Z Zhang S Zhou
The PHENIX experiment consists of a large detector system located at the newly commissioned relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The primary goal of the PHENIX experiment is to look for signatures of the QCD prediction of a deconfined high-energy-density phase of nuclear matter quark gluon plasma. PHENIX started data taking for Au+Au collisions at √
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