Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics

    • Multiple scattering of muons in beryllium

      S D Sharma S Mukherjee

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      The defocussing and the depolarization of a high energy muon beam in a beryllium filter, often used to eliminate accompanying pions, have been studied. The quantum mechanical transport equation of Waldmann, which can also be used to describe the multiple scattering of Dirac particles, is solved with a distorted wave Born approximation. Calculations are done for both the Thomas-Fermi and the Hartree-Fock potential of the beryllium atom. It is shown that the Hartree-Fock potential leads to a less divergent beam. The depolarization of a longitudinally polarized muon beam in passage through a thin beryllium foil is also studied.

    • On some operators in multichannel scattering

      S Mukherjee

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      We investigate the strong limit of an operator valued sequence used in other form in the nonrelativistic theory of multichannel scattering, and also some of its consequences.

    • Quarkonium spectroscopy with vacuum polarization correction

      A K Roy S Mukherjee

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      The quarkonium spectroscopy has been studied by considering a non-relativistic potential which includes the QCD vacuum polarization corrections. The potential consists of a short-range 2-loop QCD potential matched to a Martin-type power law potential for large distances. The Poggio-Schnitzer correction to the leptonic decay width has also been included. The energy levels, leptonic decay widths and E1 transition rates ofψ and γ families have been calculated and have been found to be in good agreement with experimental results. The toponium spectroscopy has also been studied for the range ofM, values suggested by the recent jet events observed by the UA1 collaboration. The contribution of the decay through a virtualZ0 has also been included in the calculation. The potential seems to provide a very good non-relativistic description of the quarkonium systems.

    • Alpha particle induced reactions on copper and tantalum

      A V Mohan Rao S Mukherjee J Rama Rao

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      Alpha particle induced reactions in the target elements copper and tantalum were studied. The excitation functions of63Cu(α, n) +65Cu(α, 3n),65Cu(α, 2n),181Ta(α, 2n) and181Ta(α, 4n) were measured up to 75 MeV.Eight new energy point cross-sections were measured for the first time. The experimental results were compared with the predictions of updated hybrid model (ALICE/85/300) as well as with index model using the initial exciton numbern0=4 (4poh) and level density parameter,a=A/8. A general agreement was found for all the reactions with both the models.

    • Investigation of alpha particle induced reactions on thulium

      A V Mohan Rao S Mukherjee J Rama Rao

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      Alpha particle induced reactions on the target element thulium were investigated up to 75 MeV, using foil-stack activation technique and Ge(Li) gamma ray spectroscopy method. Excitation functions for eight reactions of the type169Tm(α, xn),x=1 − 4;169Tm(α, pxn),x=3; and169Tm(α, αxn),x=1, 2, 4 were investigated. Of these, four reactions169Tm(α, p3n),169Tm(α, αn),169Tm(α, α2n)169Tm(α, α4n), were studied for the first time and in the remaining four reactions, some 19 new energy-point cross-sections were measured for the first time. The experimental cross-sections were compared with the predictions of pre-equilibrium hybrid model, as well as the more recent index model, using the initial excition number,n0=4 (4p0h). Both the models show better agreement in respect of (α, xnyp) type of reactions. However they are equally bad for (α, αxn) type of reactions which involve theα-particle in the exit channels, and for which some direct reaction contributions are indicated.

    • Mathematical analysis of isobaric decay chain in alpha particle induced reactions

      S Mukherjee N L Singh J Rama Rao

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      A detailed mathematical formalism is developed from the first principles, to separate out the fractional contributions of the cross-sectionσg andσp for the production of the two isobaric precursor nuclei- grand parent and parent, respectively, to the cross-sectionσd for the formulation of the residual nucleus of interest. The analytical work of separating out such contributions gives a meaningful picture to the comparison with the theoretical predictions of hybrid model, using the initial excition numbern0 = 4(4p0h).

    • Measurement and analysis of the excitation functions for alpha particle induced reactions on niobium

      S Mukherjee M H Rashid S N Chintalapudi

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      Stacked foil activation technique and Ge(Li) gamma ray spectroscopy have been used for determining the excitation functions up to 45 MeV, of six reactions93Nb[(α, n), (α, 2n)m, (α, 2n)g, (α, 3n), (α,p3n) and (α, αn)]. Excitation functions were also calculated theoretically by means of the hybrid model with and without the inclusion of pre-equilibrium emission of particles. A general agreement was found in (α, xn) type of reactions.

    • Dynamics of a collisional ion sheath

      S Mukherjee P I John

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      Experiments on collisional ion sheaths are carried out by applying a pulsed negative bias on a disc electrode immersed in a collisional plasma. The pulse is characterized by a linear rise, followed by a constant voltage phase and then exponential decay. The measured currents to the electrode are compared to predictions from a dynamic collisional ion sheath model which is developed from the basic two fluid equations. The parameter determining the degree of collisionality is also defined. The agreement between the two in the rising and the flat top phases of the pulse is found to be good. Some residual discrepancies as well as the disagreement in the decay phase are discussed.

    • Wormholes in higher dimensions with Gauss-Bonnet terms

      B C Paul A Beesham S Mukherjee

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      A class of wormhole solutions permitted in a theory with Gauss-Bonnet terms in the gravitational action in higher dimensions have been studied. The case of de-Sitter type instantons, with a compact inner space, are of particular interest here. Some of the configurations, when continued analytically to the Lorentzian metric lead to the standard inflationary universe. Some multiple-sphere configurations of the type studied by Myers have also been noted. The Euclidean action for the solutions has been calculated and the relevance of the solutions in the quantum creation of the universe has been considered.

    • Dynamic sheath expansion and ion current in transient ion sheath experiments

      S Mukherjee K Avinash P I John

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      Experimental results on the measurement of current collected by an electrode immersed in a plasma for a pulsed negative bias are presented. The measured current is compared with a model based on the concept of an expanding capacitor. The scaling laws predicted by the model are verified for the measured current which agree each other. The paper emphasizes the role of displacement current in an expanding ion sheath.

    • Measurement and analysis of alpha particle induced reactions on gold

      D J Shah H B Patel N L Singh S Mukherjee S N Chintalapudi

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      Stacked foil activation technique and Ge(Li) gamma ray spectroscopy have been used for the measurement of excitation functions of197Au(α,xn) (x=1−3),197Au(α,2pn) and197Au(α,αn) reactions up to 50 MeV. The experimental cross-sections were compared with the predictions of pre-equilibrium hybrid model, as well as with the more recent index model. A general agreement was found in all reactions using initial exciton numbern0=4(4p0h) except for197Au(α,n) reaction, where index model gives fairly good agreement withn0=5(5p0h).

    • Excitation functions of alpha particle induced reactions on aluminium and copper

      S Mukherjee B Bindu Kumar N L Singh

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      Cross-sections for the reactions with product nuclei24Na,22Na,68Ga and67Ga were investigated over the energy range of 30 to 75 MeV for alpha particle induced reactions on natural aluminium and copper, using stacked-foil activation technique. The measured excitation functions were analysed with special reference to their suitability for monitoring beam energy and intensity. The experimental results were compared with the predictions of hybrid model of Blann. The assumption of initial exciton numbern0=4(4p0h) best satisfies the measured excitation functions in the present work.

    • Incomplete fusion reactions in 16O+165Ho

      Anil Sharma B Bindu Kumar S Mukherjee S Chakrabarty B S Tomar A Goswami G K Gubbi S B Manohar A K Sinha S K Datta

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      Excitation functions for evaporation residues of the system 16O + 165Ho have been measured up to 100 MeV. Recoil range distribution of long lived reaction products were measured at 16O beam energy of 100 MeV. Detailed Monte Carlo simulation of recoil range distributions of products were performed with the help of PACE2 code, in order to extract the contributions of incomplete fusion in the individual channels. The results clearly show the incomplete fusion contributions in the tantalum and thulium products. This is confirmed by the predictions of breakup fusion model of the incomplete fusion.

    • Influence of DC arc current on the formation of cobalt-based nanostructures


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      The synthesis of cobalt-based magnetic nanostructures using DC arc discharge technique with varying arc current is reported here. The structural, morphological, compositional and magnetic properties of thesenanostructures were studied as a function of applied arc current. Various techniques like X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, EDAX and vibrating sample magnetometry were used to carry out this studyand the results are reported here. The results clearly indicate that for a given oxygen partial pressure, an arc current of 100A favours the formation of unreacted cobalt atomic species. Also change in arc current leads to variationin phase, diversity in morphology etc. Other property changes such as thermal changes, mechanical changes etc. are not addressed here. The magnetic characterization further indicates that the anisotropy in shape plays a crucial role in deciding the magnetic properties of the nanostructured materials.We have quantified an interesting result in our experiment, that is, for a given partial pressure, 100A arc current results in unique variation in structural and magnetic properties as compared to other arc currents.

    • A new linear plasma device for the study of plasma waves in the electron magnetohydrodynamics regime


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      A new, user-friendly, linear plasma device has been developed in our laboratory where a quiescent ($\Delta n/n \approx 1%$), low temperature (1–10 eV), pulsed (3–10 ms) plasma can be produced over a large uniform region of 30–40 cm diameter and 40 cm length. Salient features of the device include the flexibility of tuning the plasma density in the range of $10^{10}$ to $10^{12} \rm{cm}^{−3}$ and capability of scanning the plasma and field parameters in two dimensions with a precision of < 1 mm. The plasma is produced by a multifilamentary cathode and external magnetic field by Helmholtz coils, both designed and constructed in-house. The plasma parameters can be measured by Langmuir probes and electromagnetic field parameters by miniature magnetic probes and Rogowski coils. The plasma produced is uniform and essentially unbounded for performing experiments on waves and turbulence. The whole device can be operated single-handedly by undergraduate or graduate students. The device can be opened, serviced, new antennas/probes installed and ready for operation in a matter of hours. Some results on the excitation of electromagnetic structures in the context of electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) are also presented to demonstrate the suitability of the device for carrying out such experiments.

    • Comparative study of discharge characteristics and associated film growth for post-cathode and inverted cylindrical magnetron sputtering


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      In this study, an experimental investigation of a DC cylindrical magnetron discharge for argon gas in post-cathode (i.e. direct) and hollow-cathode (i.e. inverted) configurations was carried out. The discharge properties at different externally applied magnetic fields and operating pressures were measured and compared for both the configurations. The discharge current ($I$)–voltage ($V$) characteristics obey $I \propto V^{n}$, where the value of $n$ is in the range of 3–8. The discharge current increases linearly with the magnetic field in the post-cathode configuration, whereas it saturates at higher magnetic fields in the case of inverted configuration. Measurement of plasma potential indicated a considerable anode fall in the inverted magnetron configuration, whereas a negligible anode fall and strong cathode fall were observed in the case of post-cathode configuration. The plasma density and electron temperature, measured using a double Langmuir probe, were observed to be higher in the inverted magnetron configuration. The plasma density was found to be maximum at around 3–4 cm away from the respective inner electrode in both the configurations. A clear change in surface morphology of copper thin film was observed in the case of inverted magnetron configuration, which might be due to the extra ionisation near the anode owing to the anode fall.

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