• S G Ingle

      Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics

    • Domain structure in ferroelectric PbNb2O6

      S G Ingle B M Bangre

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      Single crystals of ferroelectric PbNb2O6 were grown employing a modification of the technique of Goodman. The results obtained on the domain structure were analysed and compared with those reported on BaTiO3 and KNbO3. The domain structure observed here corresponds to the twinning on (110) plane of the unit cell reported by Francombe and Lewis or the subcell reported by Labbe and others. The (001) planes were observed, as the crystal habit is such as to produce (001) planes, and the cleavage plane is also (001). Also the analysis of the observations can be done easily under these conditions. The domains observed are 90° domains with polar axis in (001) plane. Wedge shaped domains and spikes are present as in BaTiO3 and KNbO3. The twinning can occur also on$$\left( {\bar 110} \right)$$ plane producing a domain line at 90° with that due to twinning on (110). This gives patterns of perpendicular lines similar to those in KNbO3 and BaTiO3. Crystal structure considerations show that the domain structures with polarization in and out of the observed (001) plane are not possible, and also were not observed. In this sense, it is a two dimensional ferroelectric. The studies showed a peculiar grain structure in the crystals, and it can be explained on the basis of the growth habit of the crystal. The polarizing microscope is particularly useful in analysing the domain structure along with the grain structure.

    • Domain formation inside thick crystals of ferroelectric PbNb2O6

      S G Ingle B M Bangre

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      Stress dependence of domains in thick crystals of PbNb2O6 is reported. Successive etching shows numerous domains in the bulk not extending to the surface. These domains have correlation with the dislocation substructure in the bulk. The dislocations are in the form of small loops, and domain walls are found terminating along with these loops. The general problem of volume nucleation is discussed, and it is suggested that these dislocation loops play a significant role in domain formation.

    • Optical, etching, and interferometric studies on ferroelectric PbNb2O6

      S G Ingle B M Bangre

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      Optical, interferometric and etching studies of (001) surfaces of ferroelectric PbNb2O6 are presented. It is found that crystal growth takes place mainly by layer formation. The layer boundaries can be distinguished from the domain lines by interferometric studies. Thermal etch pits are found near 90° domain walls and the layer boundaries. The etching studies show that these pits are at the sites of dislocations, and it is deduced that no extensive motion of dislocation takes place at the Curie-temperature in the process of domain formation.

    • Strong, large distance impurity dipole interaction in KNbO3 single crystals

      S G Ingle J G Dupare

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      It is found that the unrelaxed impurity dipoles can arrange themselves linearly in the structure joining each other end-to-end in pseudocubic [110] direction at the tetragonal to the orthorhombic phase transition. It is shown that this alignment precedes the domain formation at the phase transition, which implies quick movements of the dipoles in the structure, and a strong dipolar interaction. The experiments with the application of dc fields to the crystals showed that the dipolar interaction becomes stronger with the field. The dipoles can see each other across the existing domain walls implying the large distance nature of the interaction. The observation of impurity clusters arranged in pseudocubic [110] direction confirmed the large distance nature of the interaction. It is concluded that this strong, large distance interaction is very interesting in as much as such an interaction of dipoles forms the basis of ferroelectricity.

    • Switching of partially switched KNbO3 single crystals containing cooperatively ordered impurity dipoles

      S G Ingle R N Kakde

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      Switching studies have been carried out in partially switched KNbO3 single crystals by observing switching transients and hysteresis loops. The crystals used contained ordered impurity dipoles that are active in nucleating domains around them. Partial initial switching was obtained by applying known compressive stress to the crystal by means of a spring. The partially switched nature was determined by recording the photograph of the crystal surface. The changed domain structure on the surface gave a clear idea of the extent of partial switching. As the compressive stress was gradually increased, the crystal showed increased initial mechanical switching through the mechanism of evaporation of domain walls associated with ordered impurity dipoles. The dipoles then switch systematically converting 90° domains with polar axes in the plane of plate into 60° domains with polar axes in the perpendicular pseudocubic {001} planes. The initial switching condition changes the switching characteristics as determined by hysteresis loops and switching transients. The results are interpreted in terms of domains in the crystal. If the dipole density is quite high, the effect of the dipoles becomes negligible, and the switching behaviour approximates that of a normal ferroelectric. The switching transients and the hysteresis loops in the crystals containing cooperatively ordered dipoles are basically different from the ones observed in normal ferroelectrics. The anomalous behaviour is detrimental to the use of material in device applications. Hence, it is shown that the switching transients and hysteresis loops provide a ready means of detecting the presence of these ordered impurity dipoles.

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