• S Jamal

      Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics

    • Higher-order symmetries and conservation laws of multi-dimensional Gordon-type equations

      S Jamal A H Kara

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      In this paper a class of multi-dimensional Gordon-type equations are analysed using a multiplier and homotopy approach to construct conservation laws. The main focus is the analysis of the classical versions of the Gordon-type equations and obtaining higher-order variational symmetries and corresponding conserved quantities. The results are extended to the multi-dimensional Gordontype equations with the two-dimensional Klein–Gordon equation in particular yielding interesting results.

    • The symmetries and conservation laws of some Gordon-type equations in Milne space-time

      S Jamal A H Kara A H Bokhari F D Zaman

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      In this letter, the Lie point symmetries of a class of Gordon-type wave equations that arise in the Milne space-time are presented and analysed. Using the Lie point symmetries, it is showed how to reduce Gordon-type wave equations using the method of invariants, and to obtain exact solutions corresponding to some boundary values. The Noether point symmetries and conservation laws are obtained for the Klein–Gordon equation in one case. Finally, the existence of higher-order variational symmetries of a projection of the Klein–Gordon equation is investigated using the multiplier approach.

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