• R R Daniel

      Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics

    • Atmospheric gamma rays in the energy region 40–1000 GeV

      K C Anand R R Daniel S A Stephens

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      A large stack of lead-emulsion sandwich detector assembly was flown over Hyderabad, India. High energy gamma rays at the float altitude were unambiguously identified from the cascades they induced, and their energies reliably determined by improved methods. From an analysis of 163 gamma rays of energy ≳ 30 GeV, it is found that the differential energy spectrum is represented by the power lawJr(E)= 129·4E−2·62±0·12 photons m−2 sr−1sec−1 GeV−1 at an effective atmospheric depth of 14·3 g cm−2; this is the first reliable balloon measurement of atmospheric gamma rays in the energy range 40–1000 GeV. After correcting for the gamma rays radiated by the primary cosmic ray electrons, the production spectrum of gamma rays, resulting from the collisions of cosmic ray nuclei with air nuclei, at the top of the atmosphere isPr(E, 0)=8·2 × 10−4 E2.60±0.09 photons g−1sr−1sec−1 GeV−1. The atmospheric propagation of the electromagnetic component due to the cascade process is also derived from the gamma ray production spectrum.

    • The diffuse cosmic gamma rays

      R R Daniel P J Lavakare

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      A careful and objective analysis is made of the available experimental observations which claim evidence for the existence of a shoulder in the spectrum of the diffuse cosmic gamma rays in the energy range of 1–40 MeV. In this, special cognisance is taken of the experimental data and theoretical calculations of the Bombay Group. These considerations cast serious doubts on the reliability of the high flux values obtained by many experimenters in this energy region emphasizing thereby the need for great caution in interpreting the shoulder as due to cosmological effects with far reaching implications.

    • Energetic neutrons and gamma rays measured on the Aryabhata satellite

      S V Damle R R Daniel P J Lavakare

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      An experiment to measure energetic neutrons and gamma rays in space was launched in the first Indian scientific satellite,Aryobhata, on April 19, 1975. From this experiment, the first measurements in space of the Earth’s albedo fiux of neutrons of energy between 20 and 500 MeV have been made; the values obtained for two mean geomagnetic vertical cut-off rigidities of 5.6 and 17.0 GV are (6.3±0.4)×10−2 and (1.4±0.3)×10−2 neutrons cm−2 sec−1 respectively. These measurements confirm that protons arising from cosmic ray albedo neutron decay, can adequately account for the protons in the inner radiation belt. Observations on gamma rays of energy between 0.2 and 24 MeV have enabled the determination of the total background gamma ray flux in space as a function of latitude. This in turn has permitted useful information on the diffuse cosmic gamma rays. We have also observed four events that showed sudden increases in the gamma ray counting rates between 0.2 and 4.0 MeV. Observational details of these events are given.

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