Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics

    • Pre-equilibrium emission effect in (n, p) reaction cross-sections at 14.8 MeV

      J P Gupta H D Bhardwaj R Prasad

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      The influence of pre-equilibrium emission on (n, p) reaction cross-sections at 14.8 MeV has been studied. Cross-sections for (n, p) reactions have been measured by the activation technique at 14.8 .1; 0.5 MeV neutron energy. The experimental cross-section values have been compared with the calculated values at 14.8 MeV with and without considering the pre-equilibrium emission. Equilibrium calculations have been performed according to the statistical model of Hauser and Feshbach while the hybrid model has been used to include the pre-equilibrium contribution. Pre-equilibrium emission has been considered only in the first emission step. The comparison of experimental and calculated values clearly indicates the presence of pre-equilibrium emission.

    • Measurement and analysis of excitation functions for alpha-induced reactions in copper

      H D Bhardwaj A K Gautam R Prasad

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      Excitation functions for the production of68Ga,67Ga,66Ga,65Ga +65Zn and61Cu fromα-induced reactions in natural copper have been measured in the energy range ≈ 10–40 MeV using the stacked foil technique. A stack of nine copper foils was irradiated by a 40 MeVα-beam. Theγ-rays emitted from the irradiated samples were recorded. Excitation functions have also been calculated theoretically using a statistical model with and without the inclusion of pre-equilibrium emission of particles. Pre-equilibrium component simulated by exciton model shows that the inclusion of pre-equilibrium emission gives better agreement between experimental and theoretical excitation functions. Pre-equilibrium fraction depends on the incident energy and the target mass number.

    • Measurement and analysis of excitation functions for alpha induced reactions on iodine and cesium

      N P M Sathik M Afzal Ansari B P Singh R Prasad

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      The excitation functions for the reactions127I(α, 2n)129Cs,127I(α, 4n)127Cs,133Cs(α, 2n)135La and133Cs(α, 4n)133La have been measured up to ≈50 MeVα-particle energy using the stacked foil activation technique. Measured excitation functions are compared with pre-equilibrium geometry dependent hybrid model calculations. It has been found that theoretical calculations using an initial exciton numbern0=4 (2p+2n+0h) give good agreement with experimental excitation functions.

    • Bulk viscous accelerating Universe in $f (R, T)$ theory of gravity


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      In this paper, we propose that the late-time acceleration of the Universe is due to bulk viscous fluid and trace of energy–momentum tensor $T$ in $f (R, T )$ theory of gravity. We assume that $f (R, T ) = f (R)+2 f (T )$ with $f (R) = R$ and $f (T ) = \lambda T$ where $\lambda$ is a constant, $R$ and $T$ are the Ricci scalar and trace of energy–momentum tensor. First, we obtain an exact solution of the bulk viscous Universe in $f (R, T )$ gravity, then we use observational Hubble data (OHD), the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) distance ratio data as well as SN Ia data to constrain the parameters of the derived bulk viscous Universe. Our estimations show that in the model under consideration $H_{0} = 69.089$ km/Mpc/s which is in good agreement with recent astrophysical observations. We ascertain the present age of the derived Universe as well as the signature flipping behaviour of deceleration parameter. Some physical properties of the derived model are also discussed.

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