• R N Kakde

      Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics

    • Switching of partially switched KNbO3 single crystals containing cooperatively ordered impurity dipoles

      S G Ingle R N Kakde

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      Switching studies have been carried out in partially switched KNbO3 single crystals by observing switching transients and hysteresis loops. The crystals used contained ordered impurity dipoles that are active in nucleating domains around them. Partial initial switching was obtained by applying known compressive stress to the crystal by means of a spring. The partially switched nature was determined by recording the photograph of the crystal surface. The changed domain structure on the surface gave a clear idea of the extent of partial switching. As the compressive stress was gradually increased, the crystal showed increased initial mechanical switching through the mechanism of evaporation of domain walls associated with ordered impurity dipoles. The dipoles then switch systematically converting 90° domains with polar axes in the plane of plate into 60° domains with polar axes in the perpendicular pseudocubic {001} planes. The initial switching condition changes the switching characteristics as determined by hysteresis loops and switching transients. The results are interpreted in terms of domains in the crystal. If the dipole density is quite high, the effect of the dipoles becomes negligible, and the switching behaviour approximates that of a normal ferroelectric. The switching transients and the hysteresis loops in the crystals containing cooperatively ordered dipoles are basically different from the ones observed in normal ferroelectrics. The anomalous behaviour is detrimental to the use of material in device applications. Hence, it is shown that the switching transients and hysteresis loops provide a ready means of detecting the presence of these ordered impurity dipoles.

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