• P S Goyal

      Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics

    • Role of IUC-DAEF in promoting neutron beam research in India

      P S Goyal

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      Inter University Consortium for Department of Atomic Energy Facilities (IUC-DAEF) is an autonomous institute of the University Grants Commission and provides an interface between the university fraternity and the institutions of Department of Atomic Energy. Mumbai Centre of IUC-DAEF promotes and supports the use of neutron facilities at Dhruva reactor by the university scientists. To augment the existing neutron scattering facilities, IUC-DAEF has developed a neutron beam line at Dhruva reactor. The present paper gives a brief survey of the activities and achievements of Mumbai Centre of IUC-DAEF.

    • Small-angle neutron scattering from micellar solutions

      V K Aswal P S Goyal

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      Micellar solutions are the suspension of the colloidal aggregates of the sur-factant molecules in aqueous solutions. The structure (shape and size) and the interaction of these aggregates, referred to as micelles, depend on the molecular architecture of the surfactant molecule, presence of additives and the solution conditions such as temperature, concentration etc. This paper gives the usefulness of small-angle neutron scattering to the study of micellar solutions with some of our recent results.

    • Small-angle neutron and dynamic light scattering study of gelatin coacervates

      B Mohanty V K Aswal P S Goyal H B Bohidar

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      The state of intermolecular aggregates and that of folded gelatin molecules could be characterized by dynamic laser light and small-angle neutron scattering experiments, which implied spontaneous segregation of particle sizes preceding coacervation, which is a liquid-liquid phase transition phenomenon. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) data analysis revealed two particle sizes until precipitation was reached. The smaller particles having a diameter of ∼50 nm (stable nanoparticles prepared by coacervation method) were detected in the supernatant, whereas the inter-molecular aggregates having a diameter of ∼400 nm gave rise to coacervation. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments revealed that typical mesh size of the networks exist in polymer dense phase (coacervates) [1]. Analysis of the SANS structure factor showed the presence of two length scales associated with this system that were identified as the correlation length or mesh size, ξ = 10.6 Å of the network and the other is the size of inhomogeneities = 21.4 Å. Observations were discussed based on the results obtained from SANS experiments performed in 5% (w/v) gelatin solution at 60°C (ξ = 50 Å, ζ = 113 Å) and 5% (w/v) gel at 28°C (ξ = 47 Å, ζ = 115 Å) in aqueous phase [2] indicating smaller length scales in coacervate as compared to sol and gel.

    • Temperature dependent small-angle neutron scattering of CTABr—magnetic fluid emulsion

      V K Aswal J V Joshi P S Goyal Rajesh Patel R V Upadhyay R V Mehta

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      Small-angle neutron scattering studies have been carried out to check the structural integrity of citryltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr) micelles in a magnetic fluid for different magnetic fluid concentrations at two different temperatures 303 and 333 K. It is found that the CTABr micelles grow with increasing magnetic fluid concentration and there is a decrease in the micellar size with increase in temperature.

    • Small-angle neutron scattering studies of nonionic surfactant: Effect of sugars

      K Shivaji Sharma J V Joshi V K Aswal P S Goyal A K Rakshit

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      Micellar solution of nonionic surfactantn-dodecyloligo ethyleneoxide surfactant, decaoxyethylene monododecyl ether [CH3(CH2)11(OCH2CH2)10OH], C12E10 in D2O solution have been analysed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) at different temperatures (30, 45 and 60° C) both in the presence and absence of sugars. The structural parameters like micelle shape and size, aggregation number and micellar density have been determined. It is found that the micellar structure significantly depends on the temperature and concentration of sugars. The micelles are found to be prolate ellipsoids at 30° C and the axial ratio of the micelle increases with the increase in temperature. The presence of lower concentration of sugar reduces the size of micelles and it grows at higher concentration of sugar. The structure of micelles is almost independent of the different types of sugars used.

    • Small-angle neutron scattering study of aggregate structures of multi-headed pyridinium surfactants in aqueous solution

      J Haldar V K Aswal P S Goyal S Bhattacharya

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      The aggregate structures of a set of novel single-chain surfactants bearing one, two and three pyridinium headgroups have been studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). It is found that the nature of aggregate structures of these cationic surfactants depend on the number of headgroups present in the surfactants. The single-headed pyridinium surfactant forms the lamellar structure, whereas surfactants with double and triple headgroups form micelles in water. The aggregates shrink in size with increase in the number of headgroups in the surfactants. The aggregation number (N) continually decreases and the fractional charge (α) increases with more number of headgroups on the surfactants. The semimajor axis (a) and semiminor axis (b = c) of the micelle also decrease with the increase in the number of headgroups in the surfactants. This indicates that hydrocarbon chains in such micelles prepared from multiheaded surfactants adopt bent conformation and no longer stay in extended conformation.

    • Small-angle neutron scattering studies on water soluble complexes of poly(ethylene glycol)-based cationic random copolymer and SDS

      C K Nisha Sunkara V Manorama Souvik Maiti K N Jayachandran V K Aswald P S Goyal

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      The interaction of cationic random copolymers of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) monomethacrylate and (3-(methacryloylamino)propyl) trimethylammonium chloride with oppositely charged surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate, and the influence of surfactant association on the polymer conformation have been investigated by small-angle neutron scattering. SANS data showed a positive indication of the formation of RCPSDS complexes. Even though the complete structure of the polyion complexes could not be ascertained, the results obtained give us the information on the local structure in these polymer-surfactant systems. The data were analysed using the log-normal distribution of the polydispersed spherical aggregate model for the local structure in these complexes. For all the systems the median radius and the polydispersity were found to be in the range of 20 ± 2 Å and 0.6 ± 0.05, respectively.

    • Counterion condensation in ionic micelles as studied by a combined use of SANS and SAXS

      V K Aswal P S Goyal H Amenitsch S Bernstorff

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      We report a combined use of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to the study of counterion condensation in ionic micelles. Small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering measurements have been carried out on two surfactants cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr) and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTACl), which are similar but having different counterions. SANS measurements show that CTABr surfactant forms much larger micelles than CTACl. This is explained in terms of higher condensation of Br counterions than Cl counterions. SAXS data on these systems suggest that the Br counterions are condensed around the micelles over smaller thickness than those of Cl counterions.

    • Small-angle neutron scattering studies of sodium butyl benzene sulfonate aggregates in aqueous solution

      O R Pal V G Gaikar J V Joshi P S Goyal V K Aswal

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      The aggregation behaviour of a hydrotrope, sodiumn-butyl benzene sulfonate (Na-NBBS), in aqueous solutions is investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Nearly ellipsoidal aggregates of Na-NBBS at concentrations well above its minimum hydrotrope concentration were detected by SANS. The hydrotrope seems to form self-assemblies with aggregation number of 36–40 with a substantial charge on the aggregate. This aggregation number is weakly affected by the hydrotrope concentration.

    • Small angle neutron scattering study of mixed micelles of oppositely charged surfactants

      J V Joshi V K Aswal P S Goyal

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      Structures of mixed micelles of oppositely charged surfactants dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) have been studied using small angle neutron scattering. The concentration of one of the components was kept fixed (0.3 M) and that of another varied in the range 0 to 0.1 M. The aggregation number and micellar size increase and fractional charge decreases dramatically with the addition of small amount of oppositely charged surfactant. The effect of addition of SDS on DTAB is significantly different from that of the addition of DTAB on SDS. The contrast variation SANS experiments using deuterated surfactant suggests the homogeneous mixing of two components in mixed micellar system.

    • A high resolution powder diffractometer using focusing optics

      V Siruguri P D Babu M Gupta A V Pimpale P S Goyal

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      In this paper, we describe the design, construction and performance of a new high resolution neutron powder diffractometer that has been installed at the Dhruva reactor, Trombay, India. The instrument employs novel design concepts like the use of bent, perfect crystal monochromator and open beam geometry, enabling the use of smaller samples. The resolution curve of the instrument was found to have little variation over a wide angular region and a $\Delta d/d \sim 0.3%$ has been achieved. The instrument provides sample environment of very low temperatures and high magnetic fields using a 7 Tesla cryogen-free superconducting magnet with a VTI having a temperature range of 1.5–320 K. The special sample environment and high resolution make this neutron powder diffractometer a very powerful facility for studying magnetic properties of materials.

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