• P Mitra

      Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics

    • T invariance of Higgs interactions in the standard model

      P Mitra

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      In the standard model, the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix, which incorporates the time-reversal violation shown by the charged current weak interactions, originates from the Higgs-quark interactions. The Yukawa interactions of quarks with the physical Higgs particle can contain further complex phase factors, but nevertheless conserveT, as shown by constructing the fermionT transformation and the invariant Euclidean fermion measure.

    • Effect of Al doping on microstructure and optical band gap of ZnO thin film synthesized by successive ion layer adsorption and reaction

      S Mondal S R Bhattacharyya P Mitra

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      Thin films of pure and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) were deposited on glass substrates from ammonium zincate bath following a chemical dipping technique called successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). Characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-rays (EDX) were used to investigate the effect of Al doping on the microstructure of AZO films. Particle size analysis using X-ray line broadening shows marginally increasing trend with increasing Al impurity. The average particle size for pure ZnO is 22.75 nm. It increases to 24.26 nm for 1% AZO film and 25.13 nm for 2% AZO film. Incorporation of Al was confirmed from elemental analysis using EDX. SEM micrograph shows that pure ZnO particles are spherical shaped. However, AZO films show particles with off-spherical shape with compact interconnected grains. The value of band gap for pure ZnO is 3.229 eV and it increases to 3.29 eV for 1% AZO indicating a blue-shift for 1% AZO film. However, for 2% AZO film, a decrease in band gap compared to pure ZnO is observed indicating a red-shift of fundamental absorption edge. Electrical resistance shows an initial decrease with increasing Al content. With further enhancement of Al incorporation, the resistance increases.

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