Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics

    • Design and operation characteristics of a high power transverse flow pulser sustained cw CO2 laser

      A K Nath L Abhinandan P Choudhary Manoj Kumar

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      A transverse flow, transverse discharge cw CO2 laser in which de discharge is sustained by employing high repetition rate high voltage pulses has been developed. Pulser sustained discharge through electrodes of innovative design provided uniform excitation at electrical input power densities more than 10 W/cc. Laser output power more than 2.5 kW was obtained in a laser gas mixture consisting of 0.5 mbar of CO2, 16 mbar of N2 and 38.5 mbar of He. Design details and operational characteristics of this laser are presented.

    • Electron temperature (Te) measurements by Thomson scattering system

      R Rajesh B Ramesh Kumar S K Varshney Manoj Kumar Chhaya Chavda Aruna Thakkar N C Patel Ajai Kumar Aditya Team

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      Thomson scattering technique based on high power laser has already proved its superoirity in measuring the electron temperature (Te and density (ne) in fusion plasma devices like tokamaks. The method is a direct and unambiguous one, widely used for the localised and simultaneous measurements of the above parameters. In Thomson scattering experiment, the light scattered by the plasma electrons is used for the measurements. The plasma electron temperature is measured from the Doppler shifted scattered spectrum and density from the total scattered intensity. A single point Thomson scattering system involving a Q-switched ruby laser and PMTs as the detector is deployed in ADITYA tokamak to give the plasma electron parameters. The system is capable of providing the parameters Te from 30 eV to 1 keV and ne from 5 × 1012cm−3−5 × 1013cm−3. The system is also able to give the parameter profile from the plasma center (Z=0 cm) to a vertical position of Z=+22 cm to Z=−14 cm, with a spatial resolution of 1 cm on shot to shot basis. This paper discusses the initial measurements of the plasma temperature from ADITYA.

    • Superconducting linear accelerator system for NSC

      P N Prakash T S Datta B P Ajith Kumar J Antony P Barua J Chacko A Choudhury G K Chadhari S Ghosh S Kar S A Krishnan Manoj Kumar Rajesh Kumar A Mandal D S Mathuria R S Meena R Mehta K K Mistri A Pandey M V Suresh Babu B K Sahu A Sarkar S S K Sonti A Rai S Venkatramanan J Zacharias R K Bhowmik A Roy

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      This paper reports the construction of a superconducting linear accelerator as a booster to the 15 UD Pelletron accelerator at Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi. The LINAC will use superconducting niobium quarter wave resonators as the accelerating element. Construction of the linear accelerator has progressed sufficiently. Details of the entire accelerator system including the cryogenics facility, RF electronics development, facilities for fabricating niobium resonators indigenously, and present status of the project are presented.

    • Generation of tunable 16 𝜇m radiation from CO2 by cascade lasing

      Utpal Nundy Manoj Kumar

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      In this paper we propose a scheme to generate tunable 16 𝜇m radiation from CO2 molecules by cascade lasing. The stimulating 9.5 𝜇m radiation is generated internally by the fast rotating mirror Q-switching technique. The optical scheme proposed by us uses an intracavity prism to separate the 9.5 𝜇m and the 16 𝜇m beams. This facilitates independent tuning of the two beams if required. In the present configuration, only the 16 𝜇m cavity is dispersive. The 9.5 𝜇m beam grows spontaneously in a stable semiconfocal resonator. We have developed a theoretical model to simulate the proposed scheme. The model predicts the energy and power of 16 𝜇m radiation. The calculated values are much higher than the previously obtained experimental values. The results point out the feasibility of developing a laser system based on the theoretical design parameters presented in this paper. Such laser systems can find application in uranium isotope separation studies.

    • Neutrino and dark matter physics with sub-keV germanium detectors

      Arun Kumar Soma Lakhwinder Singh Manoj Kumar Singh Venktesh Singh Henry T Wong on behalf of the TEXONO Collaboration

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      Germanium detectors with sub-keV sensitivities open a window to study neutrino physics to search for light weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter. We summarize the recent results on spin-independent couplings of light WIMPs from the TEXONO experiment at the Kuo-Sheng Reactor Neutrino Laboratory. Highlights of the physics motivation, our R&D programme, as well as the status and plans are presented.

    • A new approach to model CW CO$_2$ laser using rate equations


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      Two popular methods to analyse the operation of CW CO$_2$ lasers use the temperature model and the rate equation model. Among the two, the latter model directly calculates the population densities in the various vibrational levels connected with the lasing action, and provides a clearer illustration of the processes involved. Rate equation models used earlier grouped a number of vibration levels together, on the basis of normal modes of vibrations of CO$_2$. However, such grouping has an inherent disadvantage as it requires that theselevels be in thermal equilibrium. Here we report a new approach for modelling CW CO$_2$ lasers wherein the relevant vibration levels are identified and independently treated. They are connected with each other through theprocesses of excitation, relaxation and radiative transitions. We use the universally accepted rate coefficients to describe these processes. The other distinguishing feature of our model is the methodology adopted for carryingout the calculations. For instance, the CW case being a steady state, all the rate equations are thus equated to zero. In the prior works, researchers derived analytical expressions for the vibration level population densities, thatbecomes quite a tedious task with increasing number of levels. Grouping of the vibration levels helped in restricting the number of equations and this facilitated the derivation of these analytical expressions. We show that insteady state, these rate equations form a set of linear algebric equations. Instead of deriving analytical expressions, these can be elegantly solved using the matrix method. The population inversion calculated in this manner alongwith the relaxation rate of the upper laser level determines the output power of the laser. We have applied the model to an experimental CW laser reported in literature. Our results match the experimentally reported power.

    • A statistical probe into the word frequency and length distributions prevalent in the translations of Bhagavad Gita


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      A statistical study has been conducted on Bhagavad Gita. Four measures have been derived for the original text in Sanskrit and its translations in Hindi, English and French. First, word frequency distributions for the documents were modelled. Power law was observed with the longest tail in the case of Sanskrit. For other versions, the distributions well replicated the Zipf–Mandelbrot pattern. Second, the Kullback–Leibler (KL) divergence betweenthe documents has been computed with the highest value recorded in all three translations from the Sanskrit text. Next, a Shannon entropy-based measure: vocabulary quotient has been calculated, which estimates the vocabulary richness the texts offer; the highest being in the case of Bhagavad Gita in Sanskrit. Finally, word-length distributions were obtained with the longest word length in Sanskrit. The results attribute to the inflectional nature of Sanskrit.

    • All in one ultrahigh frequency radiofrequency identification sensor for internet of things applications


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      A wide-band, compact size, long-range surface-tolerant ultrahigh frequency (UHF) radiofrequency identification (RFID) sensor is proposed for internet of things (IOT) applications. The proposed sensor is designed and fabricated on a rigid FR4 substrate. The equivalent circuit analysis is performed to validate the performance of the sensor. The RFID tag exhibits a wide bandwidth of 455 MHz, long reading range with a compact size (931 mm$^2$) in comparison to the existing designs. The maximum reading range is found to be 11 m in free space. The long reading range, good surface tolerance and compact size make the design fit for potential RF identification applications. The performance of the designed RFID sensor is experimentally verified by mounting it on different types of surfaces.

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