Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics

    • Group classification, conservation laws and Painlevé analysis for Klein–Gordon–Zakharov equations in (3+1)-dimension


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      In this paper, we study Klein–Gordon–Zakharov equations which describe the propagation of strong turbulence of the Langmuir wave in a high-frequency plasma. Using the symbolic manipulation tool Maple, the classifications of symmetry algebra are carried out, and the construction of several local non-trivial conservation laws based on a direct method of Anco and Bluman is illustrated. Starting with determination of symmetry algebra, the one- and two-dimensional optimal systems are constructed, and optimality is also established using various invariant functions of full adjoint action. Apart from classification and construction of several conservation laws, the Painlevé analysis is also performed in a symbolic manner which describes the non-integrability of equations.

    • On invariant analysis and conservation laws for degenerate coupled multi-KdV equations for multiplicity $l = 3$


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      The degenerate coupled multi-Korteweg–de Vries equations for coupled multiplicity $l = 3$ are studied. The equations, also known as three-field Kaup–Boussinesq equations, are considered for invariant analysis and conservation laws. The classical Lie’s symmetry method is used to analyse the symmetries of equations. Based on the Killing’s form, which is invariant of adjoint action, the full classification for Lie algebra is presented. Further, one-dimensional optimal group classification is used to obtain invariant solutions. Besides this, using general theorem proved by Ibragimov, we find several non-local conservation laws for these equations. The conserved currents obtained in this work can be useful for the better understanding of some physical phenomena modelled by the underlying equations.

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