• K Babu Joseph

      Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics

    • The Hamilton-Jacobi equation revisited

      K Babu Joseph N Mukunda

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      A new analysis of the nature of the solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of classical dynamics is presented based on Caratheodory’s theorem concerning canonical transformations. The special role of a principal set of solutions is stressed, and the existence of analogous results in quantum mechanics is outlined.

    • The dirac-schwinger covariance condition in classical field theory

      K Babu Joseph M Sabir

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      A straightforward derivation of the Dirac-Schwinger covariance condition is given within the framework of classical field theory. The crucial role of the energy continuity equation in the derivation is pointed out. The origin of higher order derivatives of delta function is traced to the presence of higher order derivatives of canonical coordinates and momenta in the energy density functional.

    • Static,c-number solutions of a two dimensional sine-Gordon-like field equation

      K Babu Joseph A N Muraleedhara Shenoi

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      A sine-Gordon type scalar field with a$$\cos ^4 [(\sqrt {\bar \lambda } \phi )/m]$$ potential in two dimensions is studied and a static,c-number, stable, finite energy solution obtained. The intersoliton potential is evaluated for this model and is shown to be long range, attractive and ‘strong’ in the weak coupling regime. A positronium-like spectrum of bound states of the soliton-antisoliton pair is derived using this potential. The coupling with a massless quark field is discussed and an exact, stable and analytic solution of the spinor field exhibiting confinement in one space dimension is obtained.

    • Second order phase transition in two dimensional sine-Gordon field theory—Lattice model

      K Babu Joseph V C Kuriakose

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      Two dimensional sine-Gordon (SG) field theory on a lattice is studied using the single-site basis variational method of Drell and others. The nature of the phase transition associated with the spontaneous symmetry breakdown in a SG field system is clarified to be of second order. A generalisation is offered for a SG-type field theory in two dimensions with a potential of the from [cosn(√λ/m)ϕ−1].

    • A bag model study ofD mesons

      K Babu Joseph M Sabir M N Sreedharan Nair

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      An investigation of the newly discovered charmed mesonsD 0 andD +, particularly their non-leptonic decay modes, is carried out in the framework of the MIT bag model. The amplitude for a number of two-body final state decays are explicitly evaluated and compared with other available estimates.

    • A phenomenological bag model with variable bag pressure

      K Babu Joseph M N Sreedharan Nair

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      We examine the consequences of a variable (density-dependent) bag pressure term and a fixed hadronic size in the phenomenological MIT bag model for hadron spectroscopy. Mass spectrum of the low-lying baryons and mesons, baryon magnetic moments and the hadron mass splittings are estimated. These are found to be in closer agreement with experiment than the MIT results.

    • Some comments on quark masses and baryon magnetic moments

      K Babu Joseph M N Sreedharan Nair

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      The suggestion made by Lipkin regarding the quark masses and magnetic moments of baryons is examined in the context of the variable pressure bag model. We find that the exact agreement obtained by Lipkin between theory and experiment in the case ofμ(Λ) cannot be considered accidental, contrary to the scepticism expressed by Minami.

    • Dibaryons as six-quark states

      K Babu Joseph M N Sreedharan Nair V G Sreevalsa

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      In this paper we consider the experimentally observed dibaryons as six-quark states. The mass spectrum ofS-wave six-quark states is investigated in the recently developed variable pressure bag model. There is very good qualitative agreement between theory and experiment.

    • Fluctuations in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory

      K Babu Joseph B V Baby

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      The nonlinear differential equation resulting from the use of the ’t Hooft-Corrigan-Fairlie-Wilczek ansatz in SU(2) Yang-Mills gauge theory is solved by the bilinear operator method. The solutions which are singular are interpreted as fluctuations involving no flux transport. However, these objects may play a tunnelling role similar to that of merons.

    • Perturbative evaluation of universal constants for a quartic map

      G Ambika K Babu Joseph

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      We discuss a perturbative scheme for the determination of the bifurcation rate δ for a specific map, by extending Virendra Singh’s method of evaluating the scaling factor α. The method is applied to a quartic map and the values obtained, α = 1.690781026 and δ = 7.23682924 are in good agreement with the numerically computed values reported in the literature. The perturbative approach is found to be more efficient than other existing methods.

    • Transition to chaos in a driven pendulum with nonlinear dissipation

      G Ambika K Babu Joseph

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      The Melnikov-Holmes method is used to study the onset of chaos in a driven pendulum with nonlinear dissipation. Detailed numerical studies reveal many interesting features like a chaotic attractor at low frequencies, band formation near escape from the potential well and a sequence of subharmonic bifurcations inside the band that accumulates at the homoclinic bifurcation point.

    • Deterministic chaos in one-dimensional maps—the period doubling and intermittency routes

      G Ambika K Babu Joseph

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      This paper is a review of the present status of studies relating to occurrence of deterministic chaos and its characterization in one-dimensional maps. As our primary aim is to introduce the nonspecialists into this fascinating world of chaos we start from very elementary concepts and give sufficient arguments for clarity of ideas. The two main scenarios during onset of chaos viz. the period doubling and intermittency are dealt with in detail. Although the logistic map is often discussed by way of illustration, a few more interesting maps are mentioned towards the end.

    • q-Anharmonic oscillator with quartic interaction

      V C Kuriakose K K Leelamma K Babu Joseph

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      The first order perturbative correction to the energy levels of a boson realization of aq-oscillator due to a quartic term in the potential energy is evaluated. We also discuss the statistical mechanics ofq-anharmonic oscillators in the case where the parameterq deviates slightly from unity.

    • f-α Spectrum of circle map

      K M Valsamma K Babu Joseph G Ambika

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      We present an analytic perturbative method for calculatingf(α) and the generalized dimensionDq of the critical invariant circle of the polynomial circle map. The scaling behaviour is found to depend onz, the exponent defining the map. The asymptotic bounds of the scaling constantsα(z) andδ(z) are verified analytically.

    • Non perturbative effective potentials of quantum oscillators

      Rose P Ignatius K Babu Joseph

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      Non perturbative analogues of the Gaussian effective potential (GEP) are defined for quantum oscillators obeyingq—or (q,p)—deformed commutation relations. These are called the non perturbativeq-effective potential (NPqEP) and the non perturbativeqp effective potential (NPqp EP), in the respective cases. A system-specific effective potential (SSEP) is also introduced by means of an additional minimization with respect to theq orq andp parameters. The method is applied toq and (q,p) oscillators of the quartic and sextic types. The SSEP in the case of ground states of theq-oscillators corresponds toq=1, which is the ordinary bosonic limit. A potential shape transition that involves the conversion of a double well to a single well or vice versa, is seen to exist in the case of quantum oscillators sitting in a double well potential.

    • Coherent states and squeezed states of realq-deformed quantum oscillators

      G Vinod K Babu Joseph V C Kuriakose

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      A detailed physical characterisation of the coherent states and squeezed states of a realq-deformed oscillator is attempted. The squeezing andq-squeezing behaviours are illustrated by three different model Hamiltonians, namely i) Batemann Hamiltonian ii) harmonic oscillator with time dependent mass and frequency and iii) a system with constant mass and time-dependent frequency.

    • The particle in a box problem inq-quantum mechanics

      G Vinod K Babu Joseph K M Valsamma

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      Aq-deformed,q-Hermitian kinetic energy operator is realised and hence aq-Schrödinger equation (q-SE) is obtained. Theq-SE for a particle confined in an infinite potential box is solved and the energy spectrum is found to have an upper bound.

    • Nonlinear Schrödinger equation for optical media with quintic nonlinearity

      G Mohanachandran V C Kuriakose K Babu Joseph

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      A nonlinear quintic Schrödinger equation (NLQSE) is developed and studied in detail. It is found that the NLQSE has soliton solutions, the stability of which is analysed using variational method. It is also found that the soliton pulse width in the materials supporting NLQSE is small compared to soliton pulse width of the commonly studied nonlinear cubic Schrödinger equation (NLCSE).

    • Schrödinger picture formalism of Φ6 theory

      K P Satheesh K Babu Joseph

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      The static effective potential for a scalar field with Φ6 interaction is calculated using the effective action in Schrödinger picture formalism. It is found that the effective potential obtained is same as the Gaussian effective potential as far as static case is concerned. Equivalence with the CJT formalism can also be established. As in CJT formalism after renormalization an unrenormalized mass term persists. Nonzero turning points are obtained both for positive and negativeλ. Results are analysed numerically. Graphical analysis indicates a behaviour similar to that obtained for CJT formalism at zero temperature.

    • Finite temperature Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis formalism of Φ6 theory

      K P Satheesh K Babu Joseph

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      The finite temperature effective potential for a scalar field with Φ6 interaction is calculated by extending the CJT formalism for composite operators. It is found that unrenormalized terms appear in the effective potential due to the presence of an unrenormalized mass term. Nonzero turning points are obtained both for positive and negativeλ. High temperature expansion is performed and the results are analysed numerically. Graphical analysis indicates symmetry restoration whenT→0.

    • Stochastic evolution of cosmological parameters in the early universe

      C Sivakumar Moncy V John K Babu Joseph

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      We develop a stochastic formulation of cosmology in the early universe, after considering the scatter in the redshift-apparent magnitude diagram in the early epochs as an observational evidence for the non-deterministic evolution of early universe. We consider the stochastic evolution of density parameter in the early universe after the inflationary phase qualitatively, under the assumption of fluctuating w factor in the equation of state, in the Fokker-Planck formalism. Since the scale factor for the universe depends on the energy density, from the coupled Friedmann equations we calculated the two variable probability distribution function assuming a flat space geometry.

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