• J Rama Rao

      Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics

    • Total toK-shell photoelectric cross section ratios in Zr, Ag, Ta, and Th

      K Sivasankara Rao V Radha Krishna Murty K Parthasaradhi J Rama Rao V Lakshminarayana

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      Total photon atomic cross sections in elements Zr, Ag, Ta and Th were determined around theirK-edges in the energy region 6 to 400 keV with a good geometry set-up using proportional counter or Ge(Li) detector system. From these values the photoelectric cross sections were obtained by subtracting the theoretical values of coherent and incoherent scattering cross sections. The resulting photoelectric cross sections were fitted to curves above and below theK-edge for each element and extrapolated on either side and the total toK-shell photoelectric cross section ratios were determined with an error not exceeding 2%. The ratios were compared with the theoretical values obtained by Grodstein and others, as also from the empirical relation of Hubbell. The present values show good agreement with those of Scofield. A definite trend of decrease of the ratio as the energy increases is observed in the case of Th unlike in the previous experimental studies.

    • Neutron induced reactions in antimony isotopes at 14 MeV

      N Lakshmana Das C V Srinivasa Rao B V Thirumala Rao J Rama Rao

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      Neutron activation cross-sections in antimony isotopes were measured at an incident neutron energy of 14.2±0.2 MeV. The versatile mixed powder technique and high resolution Ge(Li) detector gamma ray spectroscopy were employed. The measured cross-sections were compared with those reported in literature. The total (n, 2n) cross-sections were compared with the estimates based on statistical theory. The experimental values were found to be smaller than the statistical theory estimates and the resulting diminution was attributed to the precompound effects in (n, 2n) reactions at 14 MeV.

    • Pre-equilibrium effects in (n, 2n) reactions at 14.2 MeV+

      N Lakshmana Das C V Srinivasa Rao B V Thirumala Rao J Rama Rao

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      With a view to study the pre-equilibrium effects in neutron-induced reactions, the activation cross-sections for (n, 2n) reactions at 14.2±0.2 MeV in the heavy mass region have been measured using the versatile mixed powder technique and high resolution Ge(Li) detection. The experimental cross-sections are found to be consistently smaller than the predictions based on the statistical theory and this is attributed to the effect of pre-equilibrium decay in these reactions. The cross-sections due to pre-equilibrium decay were estimated using exciton, hybrid and unified models. When this cross-section was included in comparing the experimental cross-sections with theory, we obtained better agreement, within the limitations of the present-day preequilibrium theories.

    • Alpha particle induced reactions on copper and tantalum

      A V Mohan Rao S Mukherjee J Rama Rao

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      Alpha particle induced reactions in the target elements copper and tantalum were studied. The excitation functions of63Cu(α, n) +65Cu(α, 3n),65Cu(α, 2n),181Ta(α, 2n) and181Ta(α, 4n) were measured up to 75 MeV.Eight new energy point cross-sections were measured for the first time. The experimental results were compared with the predictions of updated hybrid model (ALICE/85/300) as well as with index model using the initial exciton numbern0=4 (4poh) and level density parameter,a=A/8. A general agreement was found for all the reactions with both the models.

    • Investigation of alpha particle induced reactions on thulium

      A V Mohan Rao S Mukherjee J Rama Rao

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      Alpha particle induced reactions on the target element thulium were investigated up to 75 MeV, using foil-stack activation technique and Ge(Li) gamma ray spectroscopy method. Excitation functions for eight reactions of the type169Tm(α, xn),x=1 − 4;169Tm(α, pxn),x=3; and169Tm(α, αxn),x=1, 2, 4 were investigated. Of these, four reactions169Tm(α, p3n),169Tm(α, αn),169Tm(α, α2n)169Tm(α, α4n), were studied for the first time and in the remaining four reactions, some 19 new energy-point cross-sections were measured for the first time. The experimental cross-sections were compared with the predictions of pre-equilibrium hybrid model, as well as the more recent index model, using the initial excition number,n0=4 (4p0h). Both the models show better agreement in respect of (α, xnyp) type of reactions. However they are equally bad for (α, αxn) type of reactions which involve theα-particle in the exit channels, and for which some direct reaction contributions are indicated.

    • Fission cross section and fragment angular distribution in gold fission induced by 55 MeV alpha particles using solid state nuclear track detectors

      R K Jain J Rama Rao S K Bose

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      The angular distribution of fission fragments in alpha induced fission has been studied at an incident energy of 55 MeV in197Au target. The relative differential fission cross sections were measured at different angles between 10° and 170° and the resulting angular distributions fitted by least squares method with Legendre polynomials. In the present work, a correction for the self-scattering and self-absorption of fission fragments in the target itself was applied and a target of 3 mg/cm2 was used to get good statistics. The anisotropy for 55 MeV alpha induced fission of gold was 2·83±0·43 and the fission cross section calculated by integrating the measured angular distributions over all the solid angles was 5·2±1.0 mb, confirming the value of 4·0±0·05 mb reported by Burnettet al but contrary to the high value of 10±3 mb reported by Ralarosyet al.

    • Mathematical analysis of isobaric decay chain in alpha particle induced reactions

      S Mukherjee N L Singh J Rama Rao

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      A detailed mathematical formalism is developed from the first principles, to separate out the fractional contributions of the cross-sectionσg andσp for the production of the two isobaric precursor nuclei- grand parent and parent, respectively, to the cross-sectionσd for the formulation of the residual nucleus of interest. The analytical work of separating out such contributions gives a meaningful picture to the comparison with the theoretical predictions of hybrid model, using the initial excition numbern0 = 4(4p0h).

    • Pre-equilibrium effects in the formation of meta stable states

      R Upadhyay Ch V Sastry R K Jain J Rama Rao

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      Isomeric yield ratios have been measured for93Nb(α, 2n)95m,gTc reaction in the energy range 25–60 MeV. The ratios were compared with theoretical values obtained by means of two models one based on compound nucleus mechanism only and the other including pre-equilibrium effects. The trend of experimental ratios is better reproduced by the latter model, although there remains some discrepancy as to the magnitude at higher energies.

    • Fission fragment angular distribution in alpha-particle-induced fission of actinide elements

      R K Jain S K Bose J Rama Rao

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      Using Lexan polycarbonate plastic as the fission fragment track detectors, the fragment angular distributions have been measured in the cases of fission of232Th and238U induced by alpha particles of various energies ranging from 40 to 70MeV obtained from the 88″ variable energy cyclotron at Calcutta. The center-of-mass angular distributions have been calculated and fitted by a series of Legendre polynomials. TheW(10°)/W(90°) ratios (defined as anisotropy) were measured at several energies for both the targets. These data are utilized in calculation of the energy dependence ofK02, the standard deviation of the distribution in the angular momentum projection on the nuclear symmetry axis at the saddle point. Values of Γfη, i.e. the ratio of the fission width to neutron emission width have been determined for232Th and238U nuclei. The integral cross-section for alpha induced fission in each target was determined by numerical integration of the respective center-of-mass angular differential cross-sections. The results were compared with similar data available in the literature which served to resolve some of the discrepancies observed in earlier measurements. The results were also compared with theoretical cross-sections.

    • Measurement of fast neutron induced fission cross section of thorium using Lexan plastic track detector

      R K Jain H S Virk J Rama Rao S K Bose

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      Fission-track registration characteristics of Lexan solid state nuclear track detectors have been used to measure the fast neutron induced fission cross section of232Th. The fast neutrons (≅14.2MeV) were produced with the help of an AN-400 model Van-de-Graaff accelerator at Banaras Hindu University laboratory using3H(2H,n)4He reaction and were used to irradiate the fissile target deposited on the plastic detector. The track densityT, registered on the plastic detector is related to the fission cross sectionσf, through the relationT=knσføt wheren is the number of fissile atoms per cm2 in the deposit, ø is the neutron flux,k is fission track registration efficiency andt is the time of irradiation. The fission cross sectionσf of232Th, relative to the well measured fission cross section of238U, was found to be 0.36±0.04 barn.

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