• J Krishna Rao

      Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics

    • Spherically symmetric free fall collapse

      J Krishna Rao M Annapurna

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      The general dynamical equations for spherical gravitational collapse are derived by introducing the eigenvalue of the conformal Weyl tensor in the 2-2 component of the Einstein tensor and assuming the material content of the models to be a perfect fluid. Since this eigenvalue is coupled always with the material energy density, it has been interpreted as theenergy density of the free gravitational field whose presence is related with anisotropy and inhomogeneity. As a particular case, the collapse of a spherically symmetric dust (zero pressure) with vanishing radial acceleration (free fall collapse) is discussed. It is shown that the model is inhomogeneous with non-vanishing shear of the congruence of world lines of the dust particles. The model contains gravitational radiation by Szekere’s criterion since both shear invariant and the spatial gradient of density are non-vanishing. This is in contrast to the Oppenheimer-Synder model for which both the above mentioned characteristics are absent. A particular solution which is anisotropic and inhomogeneous has been given to prove the emission of gravitational radiation by the freely falling dust and in this case the energy density of the free gravitational field contains a typeN term superposed on the coulombian field.

    • Spherically symmetric anisotropic and inhomogeneous cosmological models

      J Krishna Rao

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      Spherically symmetric cosmological models filled with dust (pressure-free fluid) content are analyzed. It has been pointed out that these models are anisotropic (of non-vanishing shear) and inhomogeneous (∂p/ρr ≠ 0), the characteristics related directly to the presence of the free gravitational field. It is demonstrated that when the free gravitational field vanishes these models degenerate to the corresponding Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) models. It is further shown that the energy density of the free gravitational field can be introduced into observational cosmology as a new parameter since it enters into the expansion and deceleration equations, as well as conservation law for total energy, implying that the present Hubble velocity can be reached in a shorter time from the big bang. Finally, the effect of shear on the redshift is also discussed.

    • Spherically symmetric static inhomogeneous cosmological models

      J Krishna Rao M Annapurna

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      Spherically symmetric static cosmological models filled with black-body radiation are considered. The models are isotropic about a central observer but inhomogeneous. It is suggested that the energy density of the free gravitational field, which is coupled to the isotropic radiation energy density, might play an important role in generating sufficient field (vacuum) energy (when converted into thermal energy) and initiate processes like inflation. On the central world line the energy density of the free gravitational field vanishes whereas the proper pressure and density of the isotropic black-body radiation are constants. Further, it is shown that the cosmological constant is no more arbitrary but given in terms of the central pressure and density. Also, at its maximum value the energy density of the free gravitational field is proved to be equal to one third of the combined value of radiation pressure and density.

    • Spherical gravitational collapse with photon emission and a generalized Schwarzchild interior solution

      J Krishna Rao M Annapurna

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      The general dynamical equations for perfect fluid filled spheres with an outward flux of photons are derived. The vital role played by the energy density of the free gravitational field in accelerating photon production has been emphasized. It is pointed out that even when the material energy density is finite, the energy density of the free gravitational field can take infinitely large values resulting in vanishing surface area of the star. A generalized Schwarzschild interior solution with conformally flat geometry but with photon emission has been obtained. It is pointed out that the interior conformal coordinate system bears a strong resemblance to the exterior Krushkal coordinates. It is shown that for spherical star the invariant velocity of the fluid particles, falling towards the centre, is proportional to its radius suggesting that the outer envelopes collapse at a faster rate than the core part. It is shown that the interior radiating solution can be matched with generalized Schwarzchild exterior solution.

    • Static charged spheres with anisotropic pressure in general relativity

      J Krishna Rao M Annapurna MM Trivedi

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      We report a generalization of our earlier formalism [Pramana, 54, 663 (1998)] to obtain exact solutions of Einstein-Maxwell’s equations for static spheres filled with a charged fluid having anisotropic pressure and of null conductivity. Defining new variables: w=(4π/3)(ρ+ε)r2, u=4πξr2, vr=4πprr2, v=4πpr2[ρ, ξ(=−(1/2)F14F14), pr, p being respectively the energy densities of matter and electrostatic fields, radial and transverse fluid pressures whereas ε denotes the eigenvalue of the conformal Weyl tensor and interpreted as the energy density of the free gravitational field], we have recast Einstein’s field equations into a form easy to integrate. Since the system is underdetermined we make the following assumptions to solve the field equations (i) u=vr=(a2/2κ)rn+2, v=k1vr, w=k2vr; a2, n(>0), k1, k2 being constants with κ=((k1+2)/3+k2) and (ii) w+u=(b2/2)rn+2, u=vr, vvr=k, with b and k as constants. In both cases the field equations are integrated completely. The first solution is regular in the metric as well as physical variables for all values of n>0. Even though the second solution contains terms like k/r2 since Q(0)=0 it is argued that the pressure anisotropy, caused by the electric flux near the centre, can be made to vanish reducing it to the generalized Cooperstock-de la Cruz solution given in [14]. The interior solutions are shown to match with the exterior Reissner-Nordstrom solution over a fixed boundary.

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