• H K T Kumar

      Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics

    • Analysis of mode-locked internally frequency doubled broad-band continuous wave lasers

      H K T Kumar K Appaji Gowda K P J Reddy

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      Closed-form analysis of pulse evolution in the transient regime in an actively modelocked internally frequency doubled broad-band continuous wave laser is presented. The analysis enables investigation of the effect of nonlinear crystal inside the laser cavity on mode-locked pulse parameters at the fundamental frequency. It is shown that the presence of internal second harmonic crystal broadens the fundamental mode-locked pulse while accelerating the approach of the system to steady-state. The dependence of pulse parameters on the bandwidth of the tuning element, modulation depth of the active mode-locker and conversion efficiency of the frequency doubler is presented in detailed graphical form.

    • Absorption characteristics of bacteriorhodopsin molecules

      H K T Kumar K Appaji Gowda

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      The bacteriorhodopsin molecule absorbs light and undergoes a series of structural transformation following a well-defined photocycle. The complex photocycle is transformed to an equivalent level diagram by considering the lifetime of the intermediate states. Assuming that only B and M states are appreciably populated at any instant of time, the level diagram is further simplified to two-level system. Based on the rate equations for two-level system, an analytic expression for the absorption coefficient of bacteriorhodopsin molecule is derived. It is applied to study the behaviour of absorption coefficient of bacteriorhodopsin film in the visible wavelength region of 514 nm. The dependence of absorption coefficient of bacteriorhodopsin film on the thickness of the film, total number density of active molecules and initial number density of molecules in B-state is presented in the graphical form.

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