• H Ahmad

      Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics

    • High gain L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier with two-stage double-pass configuration

      S W Harun N Tamchek P Poopalan H Ahmad

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      An experiment on gain enhancement in the long wavelength band erbium-doped fiber amplifier (L-band EDFA) is demonstrated using dual forward pumping scheme in double-pass system. Compared to a single-stage single-pass scheme, the small signal gain for 1580 nm signal can be improved by 13.5 dB. However, a noise figure penalty of 2.9 dB was obtained due to the backward C-band ASE from second stage and the already amplified signal from the first pass that extracting energy from the forward C-band ASE. The maximum gain improvement of 13.7 dB was obtained at a signal wavelength of 1588 nm while signal and total pump powers were fixed at -30 dBm and 92 mW, respectively.

    • Gain-clamping techniques in two-stage double-pass L-band EDFA

      S W Harun N Md Samsuri H Ahmad

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      Two designs of long-wavelength band erbium-doped fiber amplifier (L-band EDFA) for gain clamping in double-pass systems are demonstrated and compared. The first design is based on ring laser technique where a backward amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from the second stage is routed into the feedback loop to create an oscillating laser for gain clamping. The gain is clamped at 18.6 d B from -40 to -80 dBm with a gain variation of less than ±0.1 dB and a noise figure of less than 6 dB. Another scheme is based on partial reflection of ASE into the EDFA, which is demonstrated using a narrowband fiber Bragg grating. This scheme achieves a good gain clamping characteristic up to -12 dBm of input signal power with a gain variation of less than ±0.3 dB from a clamped gain of 22 dB. The noise figure of a 1580 nm signal is maintained below 5 dB in this amplifier since this scheme is not based on lasing mechanism. The latter scheme is also expected to be free from the relaxation oscillation problem.

    • Effects of output coupler reflectivity on the performance of a linear cavity Brillouin/erbium fiber laser

      X S Cheng S W Harun H Ahmad

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      The effect of output coupler reflectivity (or output coupling ratio) on the performance of a linear cavity Brillouin/erbium fiber laser (BEFL) is demonstrated. The operating wavelength, output laser power and number of channels vary with changes in the coupling ratio in the linear cavity system. The optimum BEFL operation is obtained with an output coupling of 40%, i.e., 60% of the laser power is allowed to oscillate in the cavity. A stable laser comb consisting of up to 40 channels with line spacings of approximately 0.09 nm are obtained at the Brillouin pump and 980 nm pump with powers of 2.5 mW and 100 mW, respectively. The linear cavity BEFL has the potential to be used in inexpensive wavelength division multiplexing system.

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