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Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics

• EquatorialE region electric fields — longitudinal differences in diurnal reversal times

The times of reversal of east-west electrostatic field in the ionosphere near the equator in the Indian zone have been estimated from the measurements of ionospheric drift at Thumba. The reversal of electric field in the morning from westward to eastward is delayed with respect to the sunrise at 100 km by 1.5 hr during winter and by about 3 hr during summer months. The reversal in the evening from eastward to westward occurs around 2100 hrs,i.e., well after sunset during winter months and around 16–17 hrs,i.e., well before sunset during summer months. The electric field in the American zone is known to reverse 1–2 hr after the sunrise and sunset at 100 km; the duration of daytime eastward electric field varies with season between 12 and 16 hr. In the Indian zone, duration of the eastward field during the J months is only 8 hr. These longitudinal differences in the reversal times of electrostatic field are suggested to be the cause of longitudinal differences in the equatorial ionosphere,viz., high incidence of blanketing sporadicE layer in the Indian zone and the longitudinal differences in the occurrence of spreadF.

• Topotaxy in the oxidation of valentinite, Sb2O3, to cervantite, Sb2O4

The oxidation of orthorhombic Sb2O3, valentinite, to orthorhombic Sb2O4, cervantite, has been shown by single crystal x-ray diffraction techniques to be a topotactic reaction. The orientation relationships between the two lattices have been determined by making use of a hybrid crystal. It has been found that the individual axes in the two oxides are parallel. The two crystal structures have been compared in the appropriate orientation and their close similarity has been established. The shifts of the individual atoms in valentinite during the process of oxidation have been calculated to be not more than 0·6 Å. It has been established that the reduction of cervantite to valentinite also takes place topotactically.

• An on-line TDC-312 computer-controlled neutron diffractometer

The design and fabrication of an indigenous on-line computer controlled four-circle neutron diffractometer at the CIRUS reactor in Trombay are described. The diffractometer has an 18 in dia full-circle crystal-orienter which is sturdy enough to carry a cryostat. Three crystal orientation angles χ, φ and ω and the detector angle 2θ can be set to an accuracy of 0·01°. The four angle shafts are driven through precision worm-gears by SCR-controlled DC motors and their instantaneous positions sensed by optical digitizers. The diffractometer is interfaced to an ECIL TDC-312 computer system consisting of the CPU with 4K-memory, ASR-35 teletype, X-Y plotter and the digital input/output system (DIOS). The DIOS which operates under program control is a real-time peripheral device used to exchange information in digital form between the computer and the diffractometer. A software package consisting of over 40 useroriented teletype commands has been developed for on-line control and automatic data-acquisition.

• $${}_{\Lambda \Lambda }^{10} Be$$ in Faddeev-Yakubovsky formalismin Faddeev-Yakubovsky formalism

The four-body dynamical equations for two distinct pairs of identical particles derived earlier are applied to investigate the system$${}_{\Lambda \Lambda }^{10} Be$$. The two-body potentials have been taken to be of the Yamaguchi form, and the Bateman approximation has been used for the other amplitudes. From the set of coupled integral equations, the separation energy, BΛΛ, for the two Λ particles in$${}_{\Lambda \Lambda }^{10} Be$$ is obtained as 43·97 MeV.

• An automated high precision calorimeter for the temperature range 200 K–400 K. Part II. Design of temperature controllers

The design and construction of precision temperature controllers, capable of tracking the temperature of the samples to within 1 mK for ramp heating rates from 0.05 to 10 K per hour, are discussed. A tutorial section on the evolution of the control loop configuration is first given. This is followed by an outline of the refinements of the basic control loop desirable in the actual implementation of the electronic controller. The novel features of the present system and its performance are then briefly discussed. Finally the inadequacy of the conventional PID controllers for this application, the estimation of the time constants of the physical system needed in the design of the electronic controllers and the pitfalls in using a simple model of the heater plus thermometer assembly with a single pole are also discussed.

• The neutron interferometer as a macroscopic quantum device

Neutron interferometry is a unique tool for investigations in the field of particle-wave dualism because massive elementary particles behave like waves within the interferometer. The invention of perfect crystal neutron interferometers providing widely separated coherent beams stimulated a great variety of experiments with matter waves in the field of basic quantum mechanics. The phase of the spatial and spinor wave function become a measurable quantity and can be influenced individually. High degrees of coherence and high order interferences have been observed by this technique. The 4π-symmetry of a spinor wave function and the mutual modulation of nuclear and magnetic phase shifts have been measured in the past. Recent experiments dealt with polarized neutron beams, which are handled to realize the spin-superposition of two oppositionally polarized subbeams resulting in a final polarization perpendicular to both initial beam polarizations. The different actions on the coherent beams of static (DC) and dynamic (HF) flippers have been visualized.

• Transient excited singlet state absorption in Rhodamine 6G

Transient excited singlet state absorption (ESSA) has been studied in Rhodamine 6G in ethanol using a nitrogen laser and nitrogen laser-pumped dye laser. Broad absorption with several submaxima and possible shoulders, which represent the vibrational structure, has been observed in Rhodamine 6G in the region, 4175–4640 Å. The position of the lowest vibrational level of the first excited singlet stateS1 has been determined from the crossing point of the long and short wavelength spectral wings of absorption and fluorescence respectively. The energy level scheme of the molecule has been obtained with the help of the absorption and fluorescence spectra recorded. The observed structure in ESSA has been tentatively interpreted to be due to transitions from the different vibrational levels ofS1 to one or more vibrational levels of the upper singlet electronic stateS4.

• Point contact tunnelling studies on ceramic YBCO with scanning tunnelling microscope tips

A detailed study of point contact tunnelling into ceramic YBCO with electrochemically etched tips of Pt, Nb and W is reported. The superconducting gap parameter (Δ) has been extracted fromIV and dI/dVV curves using various procedures. Our results indicate a gap value of about 20 meV. We observe that the zero bias conductance is strongly dependent on the junction resistance. The normal state conductance varies linearly with bias voltage and the conductance curves are asymmetric with respect to polarity of the bias voltage. With contacts of very high junction resistance, we observe G(0)/G(100 mV) has a value as low as 1/6. This may be the lowest value reported so far.

• A comparison of barrier type tunnel junction and point contact tunnel junction formed on the same highTc material

By making a combination of both point contact and barrier type tunnel junctions on a single sample of the highTc superconductor BSCCO (2212) single crystal, we have shown that as the tunneling tip is slowly retracted from the surface a point contact junction gradually evolves from a N-S short to a high resistance tunnel junction. The scaled dynamic conductance (dI/dV) of this point contact tunnel junction becomes almost identical to that of a conventional barrier type tunnel junction and both show a linear dI/dVV curve. The observation implies that at high resistance a point contact junction behaves in the same way as a barrier type tunnel junction. We suggested that the almost linear tunneling conductance obtained in both the cases most likely arises due to an intrinsic characteristic of the surface of the crystal comprising of a mosaic of superconducting regions of the order of a few nanometers. We also conclude that the barrierless (N-S) point contact obtained by piercing the surface oxide layer of the crystal shows Andreev reflection which we suggest as the origin of the zero bias anomaly often observed in point contact junctions.

• A nonperturbative variational approach to the vacuum structure in quantum chromodynamics

We study the vacuum structure in QCD in a nonperturbative manner using a variational approach with gluon condensates. We show that in Coulomb gauge as the coupling becomes moderately strong, the perturbative vacuum of QCD becomes unstable leading to gluon condensates and a gauge dependent effective mass for the gluons related to the gauge independent value of 〈vac‖GμνaGaμν‖vac〉 of Shifmanet al.

• Application of a radioactive tracer method for diffusion study in some liquids

In this paper a radioactive tracer technique based on sliding cell method developed in our laboratory for the study of diffusion in liquids is presented in detail. This method consists of radioactive and non-radioactive liquid columns of equal length and the radiation detector is placed in a vertical geometry over the diffusion column. Some liquid metals and aqueous electrolyte solutions were studied by this method. The data of liquid metals like mercury and gallium have been analyzed from the point of view of hard sphere model and those of electrolyte solutions from phenomenological theories. Onsager’s coefficientsL11,L12,L22 have been calculated from the experimental data and the variation of diffusion with solute concentration has been explained from ion-ion interaction.

• Electromagnetic properties of a chiral-plasma medium

The theoretical properties of a composite chiral-plasma medium are developed. By using the reaction theorem for a magnetized chiroplasma, we obtain the proof of nonreciprocity based upon the constitutive relationships between electromagnetic vectorsE, B, H, D. Using the Maxwell’s equations and the proposed constitutive relations for a chiral-plasma medium, we derive the vectorsE andH and from these equations, dispersion relations andE-field polarizations are based. The obtained results for waves propagating parallel to the external magnetic field in a cold magnetized chiro-plasma are compared with typical results obtained for a cold plasma. For circulary polarized waves, a new mode conversion is founded with the chiral effect. The chiral rotation is obtained and compared with the Faraday rotation. For waves propagating across the magnetic field, we found a shift of the cut-offs of ordinary and extraordinary waves. On the lower branch of the extraordinary wave mode there is no bands of forbidden frequencies and the reflection point vanishes when the chiral parameter increases.

• Mass measurements of relativistic projectile fragments in the storage ring ESR

Two experimental methods of measuring masses of exotic nuclei in the storage ring ESR are presented. Bismuth and nickel fragments were produced via projectile fragmentation, separated and investigated with the combination of the fragment separator FRS and the ESR: (i) Direct mass measurements of relativistic projectile fragments were performed using Schottky mass spectrometry (SMS), i.e., exotic nuclei were stored and cooled in the ESR. Applying electron cooling, the relative velocity spread of circulating low intensity beams can be reduced below 10−6. Under this condition a mass resolving power of up to m/Δm=6.5·105 (FWHM) was achieved in a recent measurement. Previously unknown masses of more than 100 neutron-deficient isotopes have been measured in the range of 60≤Z≤84. Using known Qα values the area of known masses could be extended to more exotic nuclei and to higher proton numbers. The results are compared with mass models and extrapolations of experimental values. In a second experiment with 209Bi projectiles the area of the measured masses was extended to lower proton numbers. Due to various improvements at the ESR the precision of the measurements could be raised. (ii) Exotic nuclei with half-lives shorter than the time needed for SMS (present limit: T1/2 ≈ 5 sec) can be investigated by time-of-flight measurements whereby the ESR is operated in the isochronous mode. This novel experimental technique has been successfully applied in first measurements with nickel and neon fragments where a mass resolving power of m/Δm=1.5·105 (FWHM) was achieved.

• Experimental status of B physics

In a short period of time, we will have a large amount of results from B-factories including ones on CP violation. In this talk, we briefly review the current experimental status of B-physics. After a quick description of b-facilities, we divide this vast field into two categories: (1) weak interaction and QCD, (2) unitarity triangle and CP violation. Only a few critical items are selected in each category for the sake of time and space.

• B and collider physics: Working group report

This report summarises the work done during WHEPP-6 (Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai, India, Jan 3–15, 2000) in Working group on ‘B and collider physics’.

• Lie-optics, geometrical phase and nonlinear dynamics of self-focusing and soliton evolution in a plasma

It is useful to state propagation laws for a self-focusing laser beam or a soliton in group-theoretical form to be called Lie-optical form for being able to predict self-focusing dynamics conveniently and amongst other things, the geometrical phase. It is shown that the propagation of the gaussian laser beam is governed by a rotation group in a non-absorbing medium and by the Lorentz group in an absorbing medium if the additional symmetry of paraxial propagation is imposed on the laser beam. This latter symmetry, however, needs care in its implementation because the electromagnetic wave of the laser sees a different refractive index profile than the laboratory observer in this approximation. It is explained how to estimate this non-Taylor paraxial power series approximation. The group theoretical laws so-stated are used to predict the geometrical or Berry phase of the laser beam by a technique developed by one of us elsewhere. The group-theoretical Lie-optic (or ABCD) laws are also useful in predicting the laser behavior in a more complex optical arrangement like in a laser cavity etc. The nonlinear dynamical consequences of these laws for long distance (or time) predictions are also dealt with. Ergodic dynamics of an ensemble of laser beams on the torus during absorptionless self-focusing is discussed in this context. From the point of view of new physics concepts, we introduce a stroboscopic invariant torus and a stroboscopic generating function in classical mechanics that is useful for long-distance predictions of absorptionless self-focusing.

• A self-consistent kinetic modeling of a 1-D, bounded, plasma in equilibrium

A self-consistent kinetic treatment is presented here, where the Boltzmann equation is solved for a particle conserving Krook collision operator. The resulting equations have been implemented numerically. The treatment solves for the entire quasineutral column, making no assumptions about λmfp/L, where λmfp is the ion-neutral collision mean free path and L the size of the device. Coulomb collisions are neglected in favour of collisions with neutrals, and the particle source is modeled as a uniform Maxwellian. Electrons are treated as an inertialess but collisional fluid. The ion distribution function for the trapped and the transiting orbits is obtained. Interesting findings include the anomalous heating of ions as they approach the presheath, the development of strongly non-maxwellian features near the last λmfp, and strong modifications of the sheath criterion.

• Causality, relativity and quantum correlation experiments with moving reference frames

Entanglement, one of the most important features of quantum mechanics, is at the core of the famous Einstein-Bohr philosophical debate [1] and is the principal resource for quantum information processing [2]. We report on new experimental investigations of the properties of entangled photon pairs with emphasis on the tension between quantum mechanics and relativity [3,4]. Entangled photons are sent via an optical fiber network to two villages near Geneva, separated by more than 10 km where they are analyzed by interferometers [5]. The photon pair source is set as precisely as possible in the center so that the two photons arrive at the detectors within a time interval of less than 5 ps (corresponding to a path length difference of less than 1 mm). This sets a lower bound on the ‘speed of quantum information’ to 107 times the speed of light. Next, one detector is set in motion [6] so that both detectors, each in its own inertial reference frame, are first to do the measurement! The data always reproduces the quantum correlations.

• Gamma-ray spectroscopy with relativistic exotic heavy-ions

Feasibility of gamma-ray spectroscopy at relativistic energies with exotic heavy-ions and new generation of germanium detectors (segmented Clover) is discussed. An experiment with such detector array and radioactive is discussed.

• Fusion around the barrier for 7Li+12C

Fusion cross-sections for the 7Li + 12C reaction have been measured at energies above the Coulomb barrier by the direct detection of evaporation residues. The heavy evaporation residues with energies below 3 MeV could not be separated out from the α-particles in the spectrum and hence their contribution was estimated using statistical model calculations. The present work indicates that suppression of fusion cross-sections due to the breakup of 7Li may not be significant for 7Li + 12C reaction at energies around the barrier.

• Multiplicity distributions and charged-neutral fluctuations

Results from the multiplicity distributions of inclusive photons and charged particles, scaling of particle multiplicities, event-by-event multiplicity fluctuations, and charged-neutral fluctuations in 158A GeV Pb+Pb collisions are presented and discussed. A scaling of charged particle multiplicity as Npart1.07±0.05 and photos as Npart1.12±0.03 have been observed, indicating violation of naive wounded nucleon model. The analysis of localized charged-neutral fluctuation indicates a model-independent demonstration of non-statistical fluctuations in both charged particles and photons in limited azimuthal regions. However, no correlated charged-neutral fluctuations are observed.

• First results from RHIC-PHENIX

The PHENIX experiment consists of a large detector system located at the newly commissioned relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The primary goal of the PHENIX experiment is to look for signatures of the QCD prediction of a deconfined high-energy-density phase of nuclear matter quark gluon plasma. PHENIX started data taking for Au+Au collisions at √sNN=130 GeV in June 2000. The signals from the beam-beam counter (BBC) and zero degree calorimeter (ZDC) are used to determine the centrality of the collision. A Glauber model reproduces the ZDC spectrum reasonably well to determine the participants in a collision. Charged particle multiplicity distribution from the first PHENIX paper is compared with the other RHIC experiment and the CERN, SPS results. Transverse momentum of photons are measured in the electro-magnetic calorimeter (EMCal) and preliminary results are presented. Particle identification is made by a time of flight (TOF) detector and the results show clear separation of the charged hadrons from each other.

• Nuclear responses for neutrinos and neutrino studies by double beta decays and inverse beta decays

This is a brief report on recent studies of nuclear responses for neutrinos (v) by charge exchange reactions, v masses by double beta (ββ) decays and of solar and supernova v’s by inverse β decays. Subjects discussed include (1) v studies in nuclear micro-laboratories, (2) v masses studied by ββ decays of 100Mo and nuclear responses for ββv, (3) solar and supernova v’s by inverse β decays and v responses for 71Ga and 100Mo, and (4) MOON (molybdenum observatory of neutrinos) for spectroscopic studies of Majorana v masses with sensitivity of mv ∼ 0.03 eV by ββ decays of 100Mo and real-time studies of low energy solar and supernova v’s by inverse β decays of 100Mo.

• Meson production in p + d reactions

Total and differential cross sections for the reactions p + d3He + m0 with m=π, η and p + d3H+π+ were measured with the GEM detector at COSY for beam momenta between threshold and the maximum of the corresponding baryon resonance. For both reactions a strong forward-backward asymmetry was found. The data were compared with model calculations. The aspect of isospin symmetry breaking is studied.

• Chiral unitary theory: Application to nuclear problems

In this talk we briefly describe some basic elements of chiral perturbation theory, xPT, and how the implementation of unitarity and other novel elements lead to a better expansion of the T-matrix for meson-meson and meson-baryon interactions. Applications are then done to the ππ interaction in nuclear matter in the scalar and vector channels, antikaons in nuclei and K atoms, and how the φ meson properties are changed in a nuclear medium.

• Structure of light neutron-rich nuclei through coulomb dissociation

Coulomb breakup of neutron-rich nuclei around mass A ∼ 20 has been studied experimentally using secondary beams (∼ 500–600 MeV/u) of unstable nuclei produced at GSI. The spectroscopic factor deduced for the neutron occupying s1/2 level in 15C ground state is consistent with the earlier reported value. The data analysis for Coulomb breakup of 17C shows that most of the cross section yields the 16C core in its excited state. For 17–22O, the low-lying E1 strength amounts up to about 12% of the energy weighted dipole sum rule strength depending on neutron excess. The cluster sum rule limit with 16O as a core is almost exhausted for 17,18O, while for more neutron rich isotopes the strength with respect to that limit decreases.

• Summary of ISNP2K

This is a brief summary of the ISNP2K (International Symposium on Nuclear Physics, 2000). Many interesting works were presented on new developments and perspectives of nuclear physics in the plenary and poster sessions. Subjects discussed are 1) high temperature and high density nuclei, new QGP phases and relativistic HI collisions, 2) new degrees of freedoms studied by medium energy reactions, 3) exotic nuclei with large isospin, large A, high J and high Ex, 4) new dynamical properties of many body nucleon systems, 5) neutrino nuclear physics and neutrons for astroparticle physics, and 6) new accelerators and new applications. ISNP2K with extensive discussions on nuclear physics frontiers at the turning point from 2000 to 2001 provides a good bridge to the new century.

• Magnetotransport of the low-carrier density one-dimensional S=1/2 antiferromagnet Yb4As3

The transport properties of the semimetallic quasi-one-dimensional S=1/2 antiferromagnet Yb4As3 have been studied by performing low-temperature (T≥0.02 K) and high magneticfield (B≤60 T) measurements of the electrical resistivity ρ(T, B). For T ≿ 2 K a ‘heavy-fermion’-like behavior Δρ(T)=AT2 with huge and nearly field-independent coefficient A ≈ 3 µΩ cm/K2 is observed, whereas at lower temperatures ρ(T) deviates from this behavior and slightly increases to the lowest T. In B&gt;0 and T ≾ 6 K the resistivity shows an anomalous magnetic-history dependence together with an unusual relaxation behavior. In the isothermal resistivity Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations, arising from a low-density system of mobile As-4p holes, with a frequency of 25 T have been recorded. From the T- and B-dependence of the SdH oscillations an effective carrier mass of (0.275±0.005)m0 and a charge-carrier mean-free path of 215 Å are determined. Furthermore, in B≥15 T, the system is near the quantum limit and spin-splitting effects are observed.

• Local-moment formation and metal-nonmetal transition in Ca1−xYxVO3 and Ca1−xYxTiO3

Electron-doped metallic states of Ca1−xYxVO3 and Ca1−xYxTiO3 change into non-metallic states around x∼0.4 and 0.6, respectively. The residual resistivity in the metallic states increases with increasing effective magnetic moment or coefficient of T2 term of resistivity. The effective moment reaches ∼ 0.5 µB/molecule in Ca1−xYxVO3 and also in Ca1−xYxTiO3 near the metal-nonmetal phase boundary. In these metallic states. ∼ 10% of 3d atoms seem to have large localized magnetic moments. In electron-doped metallic sample of Ca1−xYxVO3, the temperature dependence of resistance shows no resistance-minimum. However, weak negative magneto-resistance is observed for the sample with x=0.2 up to 50 Tesla at 4.2 K.

• Metals near a magnetic instability

Zero-temperature magnetic phase transitions exhibit an abundance of nearly critical magnetic fluctuations that allow to probe the traditional concepts of the metallic state. For the prototypical heavy-fermion compound, CeCu6−xAux, a breakdown of the Fermi-liquid properties may be tuned by Au concentration, hydrostatic pressure, or magnetic field. The d-electron weak itinerant ferromagnet ZrZn2, on the other hand, was recently found to display superconductivity in coexistence with ferromagnetism.

• Spin-glass, antiferromagnetism and kondo behavior in Ce2Au1−xCoxSi3 alloys

Recently, the solid solution Ce2Au1−xCoxSi3 has been shown to exhibit many magnetic anomalies associated with the competition between magnetic ordering and the Kondo effect. Here we report high pressure electrical resistivity of Ce2AuSi3, ac susceptibility (X) and magnetoresistance of various alloys of this solid solution in order to gain better knowledge of the magnetism of these alloys. High pressure resistivity behavior is consistent with the proposal that Ce2AuSi3 lies at the left-hand side of the maximum in Doniach’s magnetic phase diagram. The ac X data reveal that there are in fact two magnetic transitions, one at 2 K and the other at 3 K for this compound, both of which are spin-glass-like. However, as the Co concentration is increased, antiferromagnetism is stabilized for intermediate compositions before attaining non-magnetism for the Co end member.

• Comment on magnetism and superconductivity in rutheno cuprates: RuSr2GdCu2O8 and RuSr2Gd1.5Ce0.5Cu2O10

Both RuSr2GdCu2O8-δ (Ru-1212) and RuSr2Gd1.5Ce0.5Cu2O10-δ (Ru-1222) exhibits magnetism and superconductivity, as seen by magnetization vs. temperature behavior measured in 5 Oe field. Zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) magnetization data show branching at around 140 K and 100 K with a cusp at 135 K and 80 K and a diamagnetic transition around 20 K and 30 K in the ZFC part, for Ru-1212 and Ru-1222, respectively. The isothermal magnetization possesses a non-linear contribution due to a ferromagnetic component at low temperatures below 50 K for both samples. The resistance vs. temperature behavior of the samples in applied fields of 0, 3 and 7 T confirmed superconductivity, with a different type of broadening of the superconductivity transition under magnetic fields for Ru-1212 from that known for conventional high-Tc superconductors. The magnetoresistance (MR) is negative above the Ru magnetic ordering temperature at 135 K. Below the Ru magnetic ordering temperature, MR displays a positive peak at low fields and becomes negative at higher fields for Ru-1212. For Ru-1222, MR remains negative both above and below the ordering temperature. A maximum of 2% is observed for the negative MR value at the Ru magnetic ordering temperature. An electron diffraction pattern obtained for the Ru-1212 sample shows two types of superstructure: one has a weak spot at the centre of the a–b rectangle, and the other only along the b direction. Interestingly, Ru-1222 shows only clean a–b and a–c planes, without any superstructures.

• Commensurability oscillations in NdBa2Cu3Oy single crystals

Commensurability between inter-vortex distance and crystal lattice constant is investigated by angular dependent magnetization in very pure twinned and twin-free NdBa2 Cu3 Oy single crystals. With increasing temperature the incommensurate states split up and become finally commensurate with half the vortex distance. These new commensurate states are related to a substructure of the intrinsic pinning potential within the unit cell and discussed with respect to temperature, field, anisotropy, and twin structure.

• MAFF — The Munich accelerator for fission fragments

At the new high flux reactor FRM-II in Munich the accelerator MAFF (Munich accelerator for fission fragments) is under design. In the high neutron flux of 1014 n/cm2 s up to 1014 neutron-rich fission fragments per second are produced in the 1 g U-235 target. Ions with an energy of 30 keV are extracted from the ion source. In the mass separator two isotopes can be selected. One of the beams is used for low energy experiments, the other one is injected into an ECRIS (or EBIS) for charge breeding to a q/A≥0.16. A gas filled RFQ cooler is used for emittance improvement. The subsequent LINAC delivers beams with an energy ranging from 3.7 MeV/u to 5.9 MeV/u. New IH structures are being developed at the Munich tandem laboratory. A small storage ring is planned in a further stage to recycle the fission fragments. A thin target foil can be placed into this ring, e.g., for synthesis of super-heavy elements. The through-going beam tube has been installed in the heavy water tank of the reactor. Tests of the target ion source in a special oven to test long term stability and safety tests were in progress.

• The design of a radio frequency quadrupole LINAC for the RIB project at VECC Kolkata

A radio frequency quadrupole LINAC has been designed for the VECC-RIB project for an input beam energy of 1.0 keV/u and q/A≥1/16. The output energy will be about 90 keV/u for a 3.4 m long, 35 MHz structure. A half-scale cold model of the RFQ has been fabricated and tested for rf structure design study. The beam dynamics and rf-structure design along with the results of the cold model tests will be presented.

• Non-linear polarization and chiral effects in birefringent solitons

Novel effects resulting from joint action of chirality and non-linearity are discussed using a basic equation describing the temporal evolution of fields in a chiral medium with Kerr non-linearity. The spatial chirality effect is characterized through the Born-Fedorov formalism. Our simulations are based on the split-step Fourier method and the solution of the Stokes parameters. The numerical results show the chiral effect on solitons with circular polarization and mixed polarization spatial solitons.

• Optimization and performance of a high-speed plasma position digital control system

This paper addresses optimization of a high-speed digital feedback controller for a plasma position in Damavand tokamak. Damavand tokamak discharges have plasma currents up to 40 kA with discharge duration greater than 15 ms and toroidal magnetic fields up to 1.2 T. The plasma position is measured using saddle-loops and Rogowski coil and is controlled by electromagnetic forces generated by passing currents through control coils placed around the plasma. A desired control objective is maintaining the plasma in the center of vacuum vessel and to stabilize the plasma in the presence of disturbances in a time domain of the order of few milliseconds. In order to achieve maximum performance it is essential to optimize the control system. In this paper plasma position measurement and the details of implementing high-speed PID controllers based on a TMS320c25 digital signal processor along with the system optimization are presented.

• Single crystal EPR studies of Mn(II) doped into zinc ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (ZnNH4PO4·6H2O): A case of interstitial site for bio-mineral analogue

Single crystal EPR studies of Mn(II)-doped zinc ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (ZnNH4PC4·6H2O) have been reinvestigated at room temperature. Single crystal rotations along the three orthogonal axes indicate that the spin Hamiltonian parameters for the interstitial site are:gxx = 1.966,gyy = 1.972,gzz = 1.976;Dxx = -12.28 mT,Dyy = -2.09 mT andDzz = 14.37 mT;Axx = 9.06 mT,Ayy = 9.06 mT andAzz = 11.09 mT;a = -0.11 mT. These parameters differ considerably from the previous report of Chand and Agarwal and indicate the orthorhombic nature of the paramagnetic impurity. The impurity is found to enter the lattice interstitially, in contrast to earlier prediction of substitutional position. The percentage covalency of the Mn-0 bond has been estimated.

• Ballistic transport in semiconductor nanostructures: From quasi-classical oscillations to novel THz-emitters

By suitable design it is possible to achieve quasi-ballistic transport in semiconductor nanostructures over times up to the ps-range. Monte-Carlo simulations reveal that under these conditions phase-coherent real-space oscillations of an electron ensemble, generated by fs-pulses become possible in wide potential wells. Using a two-color pump-and-probe technique we have been able to observe this new phenomenon in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. Apart from its fundamental significance, ballistic transport in nanostructures can also be used for high-efficiency coherent THz-sources. The concept of these THz-emitters and its experimental confirmation will also be presented.

• Working group report: Flavor physics and model building

This is the report of flavor physics and model building working group at WHEPP-9. While activites in flavor physics have been mainly focused on B-physics, those in model building have been primarily devoted to neutrino physics. We present summary of working group discussions carried out during the workshop in the above fields, and also briefly review the progress made in some projects subsequently.

• Working group report: Heavy-ion physics and quark-gluon plasma

This is the report of Heavy Ion Physics and Quark-Gluon Plasma at WHEPP-09 which was part of Working Group-4. Discussion and work on some aspects of quark-gluon plasma believed to have created in heavy-ion collisions and in early Universe are reported.

• Pulsed pump: Thermal effects in solid state lasers under super-Gaussian pulses

Solid state laser (SSL) powers can be realistically scaled when pumped by a real, efficient and multimode pulse. In this work, a fourth-order super-Gaussian pulse was assumed as a pump for SSL’s and a complete analytical expression for the thermal phase shift is given. Moreover, the focal length of thermal lens in paraxial ray approximation regime was studied. The results when applied to a Ti: sapphire crystal show an appreciable correction for abberation compared to a top-hat pulse.

• Application of quasiexactly solvable potential method to the $N$-body problem of anharmonic oscillators

The quasiexactly solvable potential method is used to determine the energies and the corresponding exact eigenfunctions for a system of N particles with equal mass interacting via an anharmonic potential. For systems with five and seven particles, we compute the ground state and the first excited state only, and compare the spectrums with the results obtained by Ritz approximation method.

• Bohr Hamiltonian with different mass parameters applied to band structures of Eu isotopes built on Nilsson orbitals

The band structure of the proton-odd nuclei $^{153,155}$Eu, built on Nilsson orbitals, is investigated within the framework of a recently developed extended Bohr Hamiltonian model. The relative distance between spherical orbitals is taken into account by considering single-particle energies as a parameter which changes with increasing neutron number. Energy levels of each band and$B(E2)$ values inside the ground-state band are calculated and compared with the available experimental data. Thus, more comprehensive information on the structure of deformed nuclei can be obtained by studying the rotation–vibration spectra of odd nuclei built on Nilsson single-particle orbitals.

• Thermal expansion behaviour and phase stability of AFe$_2$As$_2$ (A=Ca, Sr and Eu) using powder diffraction technique

The thermal expansibilities and phase stabilities of AFe$_2$As$_2$ (A = Ca, Sr and Eu) have been investigated by powder diffraction techniques in the temperature range 5–600 K.We found the anisotropic thermal expansivities with temperature for all the compounds. The lattice parameter in the tetragonal phase (AT) of CaFe$_2$As$_2$ contracts with increasing temperature, whereas CT expands. The rate of contraction in AT is lower than the rate of expansion in CT. Other compounds show normal thermal expansion behaviour along both a- and c-axes. In-plane expansion (i.e., along the a-axis) is found to be the smallest for EuFe$_2$As$_2$ and the highest for BaFe$_2$As$_2$. However, therate of change of thermal expansivities along out-of-plane (i.e., along the c-axis) is higher as we go from Ba, Sr, Eu and Ca, respectively. Above 600 K, we notice the appearance/disappearance of certain reflections which suggest that tetragonal phase is not stable above this temperature for these compounds.

• Structural, photoconductive, thermoelectric and activation energy measurements of $V$-doped transparent conductive $SnO_{2}$ films fabricated by spray pyrolysis technique

This report investigated the structural, optical and electrical properties of V-doped $SnO_{2}$ thin films deposited using spray pyrolysis technique. The $SnO_{2}$:$V$ films, with different $V$-content, were deposited on glasssubstrates at a substrate temperature of $550\deg C$ using an aqueous ethanol solution consisting of tin and vanadium chloride. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the $SnO_{2}$:$V$ films were polycrystalline only with tin oxide phasesand the preferred orientations are along (1 1 0), (1 0 1), (2 1 1) and (3 0 1) planes. Using Scherrer formula, the grain sizes were estimated to be within the range of 25--36 nm. The variation in sheet resistance and optical direct band gap are functions of vanadium doping concentration. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) revealed the surface morphology to be very smooth, yet grainy in nature. Optical transmittance spectra of the films showed high transparency of about $\approx 69--90%$ in the visible region, decreasing with increase in $V$-doping. The direct band gap for undoped $SnO_{2}$ films was found to be 3.53 eV, while for higher V-doped films it shifted toward lower energies in the range of 3.27--3.53 eV and then increased again to 3.5 eV. The Hall effect and Seebeck studies revealed that the films exhibit n-type conductivity. The thermal activation energy, Seebeck coefficient and maximum of photosensitivity in the films were found to be in the range of 0.02--0.82 eV (in thelow-temperature range), $0.15--0.18 {\rm mV K^{−1}}$ (at $T = 350 K$) and 0.96--2.84, respectively.

• Analysis of the $B^{+}_{c} \rightarrow D^{+}_{s} \bar{K}^{0\ast}$ decay

We analysed the process of $B^{+}_{c} \rightarrow D^{+}_{s} \bar{K}^{0\ast}$ using QCD factorization (QCDF) and final-state interaction (FSI) effects. First, the $B^{+}_{c} \rightarrow D^{+}_{s} \bar{K}^{0\ast}$ decay is calculated using QCDF method. The value found by using theQCDF method is less than the experimental value. Then we considered FSI effect as a sizable correction wherethe intermediate state $D^{+}^{\ast}$ mesons via the exchange of $K^{0}(K^{0}^{\ast}$) are produced. To consider the amplitudes ofthis intermediate state, the QCDF approach was used. The experimental branching ratio of $B^{+}_{c} \rightarrow D^{+}_{s} \bar{K}^{0\ast}$ decayis less than $0.4 \times 10^{-6}$ and our results are $(0.21 \pm 0.04) \times 10^{7}$ and $(0.37 \pm 0.05) \times 10^{6}$ from QCDF and FSI,respectively.

• Influence of absorbed pump profile on the temperature distribution within a diode side-pumped laser rod

In this paper, an analytical model for temperature distribution of the side-pumped laser rod is extracted. This model can be used for side-pumped laser rods whose absorbed pump profile is a Gaussian profile. Then, it is validated by numerical results which exhibit a good agreement with the analytical results. Afterwards, by considering a general expression for super-Gaussian and top-hat profiles, and solving the heat equation, the influence of profile width and super-Gaussian exponent of the profile on temperature distribution are investigated.Consequently, the profile width turns out to have a greater influence on the temperature compared to the type of the profile.

• Effects of electron–phonon interaction and impurity on optical properties of hexagonal-shaped quantum wires

We have investigated the influence of electron–phonon (e–p) interaction and hydrogenic donor impurity simultaneously on energy difference, binding energy, the linear, nonlinear and total refractive index changes and absorption coefficients of a hexagonal-shaped quantum wire. For this goal, we have used finite-elementmethod (FEM), a compact density matrix approach and an iterative procedure. It is deduced that energy difference and binding energy decrease by changing the impurity position with and without e–p interaction. The dipole matrix elements have complex behaviours in the presence of impurity with and without e–p interaction. The refractive index changes and absorption coefficients increase and shift towards lower energies by enhancing $a_1$ with central impurity. In the presence of central impurity, the absorption coefficients and refractive index changes enhance and shift toward higher energies when e–p interaction is considered.

• First-principle calculations of structural, electronic, optical, elastic and thermal properties of $\rm{MgXAs_{2} (X = Si, Ge)}$ compounds

First-principle calculations on the structural, electronic, optical, elastic and thermal properties of the chalcopyrite $\rm{MgXAs_{2} (X = Si, Ge)}$ have been performed within the density functional theory (DFT) using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The obtained equilibrium structural parameters are in good agreement with the available experimental data and theoretical results. The calculated band structures reveal a direct energy band gap for the interested compounds. The predicted band gaps using the modified Becke–Johnson(mBJ) exchange approximation are in fairly good agreement with the experimental data. The optical constants such as the dielectric function, refractive index, and the extinction coefficient are calculated and analysed. The independent elastic parameters namely, $C_{11}, C_{12}, C_{13}, C_{33}, C_{44}$ and $C_{66}$ are evaluated. The effects of temperature and pressure on some macroscopic properties of $\rm{MgSiAs_{2}}$ and $\rm{MgGeAs_{2}}$ are predicted using the quasiharmonic Debye model in which the lattice vibrations are taken into account.

• Neutron energy measurement for practical applications

Industrial demand for neutrons constrains careful energy measurements. Elastic scattering of monoenergetic $\alpha$-particles from neutron collision enables neutron energy measurement by calculating the amount of deviation from the position where collision takes place. The neutron numbers with specific energy is obtained by counting the number of $\alpha$-particles in the corresponding location on the charged particle detector. Monte Carlo simulation and COMSOL Multiphysics5.2 are used to account for one-to-one collision of neutrons with $\alpha$-particles.

• Nonlinear propagation of ion plasma waves in dust-ion plasma including quantum-relativistic effect

In this paper we have theoretically investigated the quantum and relativistic effects on ion plasma wave in an unmagnetised dust-ion plasma. By using the method of normal mode analysis, we have obtained a linear dispersion relation. It has been analysed numerically for quantum and relativistic effects on the propagation of ion plasma wave. By using the standard reductive perturbation technique, we have derived a Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation which describes the nonlinear propagation of the wave. Numerically, it is shown that only compressive type of soliton can exist in the plasma under consideration. It is found that the solitary wave profile depends significantly on the quantum and relativistic parameters. The dust size, dust charge and the dust number density are also shown to have significant influences on these solitary waves. The results of this present investigation have some relevance to the nonlinear propagation of ion plasma wave in some astrophysical, space and laboratory plasma environments.

• Minimal length Schrödinger equation via factorisation approach

The fourth-order modified Schrödinger equation due to the generalised uncertainty principle is considered in one dimension with a box problem. The factorisation of fourth-order self-adjoint differential equations is then discussed and thereby the wave functions and energy spectra of themodified Schrödinger equation are derived.

• The Weyl equation under an external electromagnetic field in the cosmic string space–time

In this paper we have considered a massless spinor Dirac particle in the presence of an external electromagnetic field in the cosmic string space–time. To study the Weyl equation in the cosmic string framework using the general definition of Laplacian in the curved space, elements of covariant derivative have been constructed and the Weyl equation has been rewritten in the considered framework. Then we have obtained the equation ofenergy eigenvalues by using the Nikiforov–Uvarov (NU) method. The wave function has been obtained in terms of Laguerre polynomials. An important result obtained is that the degeneracy of the Minkowski space spectral is broken in the transition from Minkowski to cosmic string space.

• Ab initio study of the fundamental properties of $\rm{Zn_{1−x}TM_{x}Se (TM=Mn, Co \, and \, Fe)}$

The structural, electronic, magnetic, thermal and elastic properties of $\rm{Zn_{1−x}TM_{x}Se (TM=Mn, Co \, and \, Fe)}$ ternary alloys are investigated at $x$ = 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 in the zincblende (B3) phase. The calculations are performed using all-electron full-potential linearised augmented plane-wave (FP-LAPW) method within the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) and the generalised gradient approximation (GGA). The electronic and magnetic properties were performed using the modified Becke–Johnson potential combined with the GGA correlation (mBJ-GGA). The electronic structures are found to exhibit a semiconducting behaviour for $\rm{Zn_{1−x}Mn_{x}Se}$ and $\rm{Zn_{1−x}Co_{x}Se}$ and a half-metallic behaviour for $\rm{Zn_{1−x}Fe_{x}Se}$ alloys at all concentrations, while CoSe with $x = 1.00$ is found to exhibit a metallic behaviour. The calculated magnetic moment per substituted transition metal (TM) Mn, Co and Fe atoms for half-metallic compounds are found to be 2.5, 1.5 and 2 $\mu_{B}$, respectively. The p–d hybridisation between the TM d- and Se p-states reduces the local magnetic moment of Mn, Co and Fe and induces small local magnetic moments on Zn and Se sites. In addition, we discuss the mechanical behaviour of binary and ternary compounds and all compounds studied here are mechanically stable.

• $q$-Deformed oscillator algebra in fermionic and bosonic limits

In this paper, the structure function corresponding to the $q$-deformed harmonic oscillator algebra is considered, where we construct the Hamiltonian by using creation and annihilation operators. Finally, the problem is investigated by evaluating the partition function of the system in finite- and infinite-dimensional Fock space for both fermionic and bosonic limits. Other thermodynamic properties such as the internal energy and the specific heat of the system are also calculated.

• # Pramana – Journal of Physics

Volume 94, 2020
All articles
Continuous Article Publishing mode

• # Editorial Note on Continuous Article Publication

Posted on July 25, 2019