• Gert Aarts

      Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics

    • Developments in lattice quantum chromodynamics for matter at high temperature and density

      Gert Aarts

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      A brief overview of the QCD phase diagram at nonzero temperature and density is provided. It is explained why standard lattice QCD techniques are not immediately applicable for its determination, due to the sign problem. A selection of recent lattice approaches that attempt to evade the sign problem are then discussed and classified according to the underlying principle: constrained simulations (density of states, histograms), holomorphicity (complex Langevin, Lefschetz thimbles), partial summations (clusters, subsets, bags) and change in integration order (strong coupling, dual formulations).

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