• G Shanmugam

      Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics

    • Force field calculation for inplane vibrations of ethylene usingcndo/Force method

      A Jothi G Shanmugam A Annamalai Surjit Singh

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      cndo/Force method is used to evaluate redundancy-free internal valence force field (rfivff) for inplane vibrations of ethylene. The bending force constants, the stretch-band and bend-bend interaction force constants are predicted reasonably well in magnitude and sign by this method; whereas stretching force constants and stretch-stretch interactions are overestimated. Initial force field is set up by transferring stretching force constants from structurally-related molecules and including the rest of the force constants fromcndo force field. The field so constructed is subjected to refinement by the least square method. A total of 64 vibrational frequencies of C2H4, C2D4, C2H2D2 and their13C isotopic modifications are used to determine force field containing 15 parameters. The final force field is found to be reasonable on the basis of frequency fits, potential energy distribution and band assignments.

    • Distinction between pre-formed cluster emission and heavy ion decay by fission

      G Shanmugam G M Carmel Vigila Bai

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      For studying cluster radioactivity in the actinide region as well as trans-tin region two types of models are used: the pre-cluster formation model and the unified fission model. In the case of the actinide region, the cluster-like shapes are preferred for very high asymmetry while fissioning shapes are more suitable for less asymmetry and symmetry (the line of demarcation being around Ac=31). In this work this line of demarcation is studied in the case of the trans-tin region. The results of this study show that the transition from cluster mode to fission mode takes place at Ac=16.

    • Rotational co-existence in selenium isotopes

      G Shanmugam V Ramasubramanian P Arumugam

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      High spin states of 72,73,74Se nuclei are discussed using calculations from the cranked Nilsson Strutinsky method with tuning to fixed spins. The low spin anomaly in the yrast bands of these nuclei is interpreted in a rotational co-existence picture. High K rotational isomers are proposed for Iπ=4+ in 72Se and 6+ in 74Se.

    • Cubic potential models for cluster radioactivity

      G Shanmugam

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      Cluster radioactivity is a process by which nuclei equal and heavier than the α-particle is emitted spontaneously. The clusters usually emitted in this process are the α-particle, carbon, oxygen, neon, magnesium, silicon etc. When the mass of the cluster becomes comparable with the mass of the daughter, symmetric fission takes place. Thus the cluster radioactivity is an intermediate process between the well known α-decay and the spontaneous fission. In earlier years such cluster radioactivity was found mostly in actinide nuclei like radium, uranium etc. Very recently it has been predicted that such decays are possible in a new region around 111Ba. There has been an exciting experimental detection of the emission of 12C from 111Ba leading to 102Sn, which is attracting a lot of attention recently.

      To study the phenomenon of cluster radioactivity there are various theoretical models in vogue. The existing models generally fall under two categories: the unified fission model (UFM) and the preformed cluster model (PCM). The physics of the UFM and the PCM are completely different. The UFM considers cluster radioactivity simply as a barrier penetration phenomenon in between the fission and the α-decay without worrying about the cluster being or not being preformed in the parent nucleus. In the PCM clusters are assumed to be preborn in a parent nucleus before they could penetrate the potential barrier with a given Q-value. The basic assumption of the UFM is that heavy clusters as well as the α-particle have equal probability of being preformed. In PCM, clusters of different sizes have different probabilities of their being preformed in the parent nucleus.

      We have developed three fission models during the last decade using the cubic potential for the pre-scission region. The use of these models in the study of cluster radioactivity in both the actinide and barium regions will be discussed in this talk in comparison with the other existing theories.

    • Inclusion of temperature dependent shell corrections in Landau theory for hot rotating nuclei

      G Shanmugam P Arumugam

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      Landau theory used for studying hot rotating nuclei usually uses zero temperature Strutinsky smoothed total energy for the temperature dependent shell corrections. This is replaced in this work by the temperature dependent Strutinsky smoothed free energy. Our results show that this replacement has only marginal effect for temperatures greater than 1 MeV but plays significant role at lower temperatures.

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