• DAVID ROMERO ABAD

      Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics

    • Electric charge quantisation in 331 models with exotic charges

      DAVID ROMERO ABAD JOSE REYES PORTALES ELMER RAMIREZ BARRETO

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      The extensions of the Standard Model based on the $SU(3)_{C} \otimes SU(3)_{L} \otimes U(1)_{X}$ gauge group are known as 331 models. Different properties such as the fermion assignment and the electric charges of the exotic spectrum, that define a particular 331 model, are fixed by a $\beta$ parameter. In this article, we study the electric charge quantisation in two versions of the 331 models, set by the conditions $\beta = 1/(3\sqrt{3})$ and $\beta = 0$. In these frameworks, arise exotic particles, for instance, new leptons and gauge bosons with a fractional electric charge. Additionally, depending on the version, quarks with non-standard fractional electric charges or even neutral appear. Considering the definition of electric charge operator as a linear combination of the group generators that annihilates the vacuum, classical constraints from the invariance of the Lagrangian, and gauge and mixed gauge-gravitational anomalies cancellation, the quantisation of the electric charge can be verified in both versions.

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