• Avinash Khare

      Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics

    • Feynman diagram method for atomic collisions

      T Pradhan Avinash Khare

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      Feynman diagram method of treating atomic collision problems in perturbation theory is presented and matrix elements are calculated for a number of processes. The result for the resonant charge transfer in hydrogen is identical to the well known OBK value. However, in processes like collisional ionisation, the results are different from those obtained by conventional methods.

    • Anharmonic oscillator model for first order structural phase transition

      Avinash Khare S N Behera

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      Exact solutions for the motion of a classical anharmonic oscillator in the potentialV(φ)=2 − |A|φ4 +6 are obtained in (1 + 1) dimensions. Instanton-like solutions in (imaginary time) which takes the particle from one maximum of the potential to the other are obtained in addition to the usual oscillatory solutions. The energy dependence of the frequencies of oscillation is discussed in detail. This can be used as a model for the first order structural phase transition in the mean field approximation. The high and low temperature behaviour of the static susceptibility is obtained. Finally, a qualitative explanation is offered for the observed central peak in ferroelectrics like SrTiO2.

    • Classical φ6-field theory in (1+1) dimensions. A model for structural phase transitions

      S N Behera Avinash Khare

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      The classical φ6-field theory in (1+1) dimensions, is considered as a model for the first order structural phase transitions. The equation of motion is solved exactly; and the presence of domain wall (kink) solutions at and below the transition point, in addition to the usual phonon-like oscillatory solutions, is demonstrated. The domain wall solutions are shown to be stable, and their mass and energies are calculated. Above the transition point there exists exotic unstable kink-like solutions which takes the particle from one hill top to the other of the potential. The partition function of the system is calculated exactly using the functional integral method together with the transfer matrix techniques which necessitates the determination of the eigenvalues of a Schrödinger-like equation. Thus the exact free energy is evaluated which in the low temperature limit has a phonon part and a contribution coming from the domain wall excitations. It was shown that this domain wall free energy differs from that calculated by the use of the domain wall phenomenology proposed by Krumhansl and Schrieffer. The exact solutions of the Schrödinger-like equation are also used to evaluate the displacement-displacement, intensity-intensity correlation functions and the probability distribution function. These results are compared with those obtained from the phenomenology as well as the φ4-field theory. A qualitative picture of the central peak observed in structural phase transitions is proposed.

    • Classical ϕ6-field theory in (1+1) dimensions 2. Proof of the existence of domain walls above the transition point

      S N Behera Avinash Khare

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      The existence of a domain wall-like contribution to the free energy above the first order phase transition point is demonstrated for a system described by the ϕ6-field theory in (1+1) dimensions.

    • The phase of the Riemann zeta function

      Avinash Khare

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      We, offer an alternative interpretation of the Riemann zeta functionζ(s) as a scattering amplitude and its nontrivial zeros as the resonances in the scattering amplitude. We also look at several different facets of the phase of theζ function. For example, we show that the smooth part of theζ function along the line of the zeros is related to the quantum density of states of an inverted oscillator. On the other hand, for ℜs>1/2, we show that the memory of the zeros fades only gradually through a Lorentzian smoothing of the delta functions. The corresponding trace formula for ℜs≫1 is shown to be of the same form as generated by a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator in one direction along with an inverted oscillator in the transverse direction. Quite remarkably for this simple model, the Gutzwiller trace formula can be obtained analytically and is found to agree with the quantum result.

    • Supersymmetry in quantum mechanics

      Avinash Khare

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      In the past ten years, the ideas of supersymmetry have been profitably applied to many nonrelativistic quantum mechanical problems. In particular, there is now a much deeper understanding of why certain potentials are analytically solvable. In this lecture I review the theoretical formulation of supersymmetric quantum mechanics and discuss many of its applications. I show that the well-known exactly solvable potentials can be understood in terms of a few basic ideas which include supersymmetric partner potentials and shape invariance. The connection between inverse scattering, isospectral potentials and supersymmetric quantum mechanics is discussed and multi-soliton solutions of the KdV equation are constructed. Further, it is pointed out that the connection between the solutions of the Dirac equation and the Schrödinger equation is exactly same as between the solutions of the MKdV and the KdV equations.

    • Truncated harmonic oscillator and parasupersymmetric quantum mechanics

      B Bagchi S N Biswas Avinash Khare P K Roy

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      We discuss in detail the parasupersymmetric quantum mechanics of arbitrary order where the parasupersymmetry is between the normal bosons and those corresponding to the truncated harmonic oscillator. We show that even though the parasusy algebra is different from that of the usual parasusy quantum mechanics, still the consequences of the two are identical. We further show that the parasupersymmetric quantum mechanics of arbitrary orderp can also be rewritten in terms ofp supercharges (i.e. all of which obeyQi2=0). However, the Hamiltonian cannot be expressed in a simple form in terms of thep supercharges except in a special case. A model of conformal parasupersymmetry is also discussed and it is shown that in this case, thep supercharges, thep conformal supercharges along with HamiltonianH, conformal generatorK and dilatation generatorD form a closed algebra.

    • Local identities involving Jacobi elliptic functions

      Avinash Khare Arul Lakshminarayan Uday Sukhatme

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      We derive a number of local identities involving Jacobi elliptic functions and use them to obtain several new results. First, we present an alternative, simpler derivation of the cyclic identities discovered by us recently, along with an extension to several new cyclic identities. Second, we obtain a generalization to cyclic identities in which successive terms have a multiplicative phase factor exp(2iπ/s), wheres is any integer. Third, we systematize the local identities by deriving four local ‘master identities’ analogous to the master identities for the cyclic sums discussed by us previously. Fourth, we point out that many of the local identities can be thought of as exact discretizations of standard non-linear differential equations satisfied by the Jacobi elliptic functions. Finally, we obtain explicit answers for a number of definite integrals and simpler forms for several indefinite integrals involving Jacobi elliptic functions.

    • Connecting Jacobi elliptic functions with different modulus parameters

      Avinash Khare Uday Sukhatme

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      The simplest formulas connecting Jacobi elliptic functions with different modulus parameters were first obtained over two hundred years ago by John Landen. His approach was to change integration variables in elliptic integrals. We show that Landen’s formulas and their subsequent generalizations can also be obtained from a different approach, using which we also obtain several new Landen transformations. Our new method is based on recently obtained periodic solutions of physically interesting non-linear differential equations and remarkable new cyclic identities involving Jacobi elliptic functions.

    • Compactons in $\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric generalized Korteweg–de Vries equations

      Carl M Bender Fred Cooper Avinash Khare Bogdan Mihaila Avadh Saxena

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      This paper considers the $\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric extensions of the equations examined by Cooper, Shepard and Sodano. From the scaling properties of the $\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric equations a general theorem relating the energy, momentum and velocity of any solitary-wave solution of the generalized KdV equation is derived. We also discuss the stability of the compacton solution as a function of the parameters affecting the nonlinearities.

    • New quasi-exactly solvable Hermitian as well as non-Hermitian $\mathcal{PT}$ -invariant potentials

      Avinash Khare Bhabani Prasad Mandal

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      We start with quasi-exactly solvable (QES) Hermitian (and hence real) as well as complex $\mathcal{PT}$ -invariant, double sinh-Gordon potential and show that even after adding perturbation terms, the resulting potentials, in both cases, are still QES potentials. Further, by using anti-isospectral transformations, we obtain Hermitian as well as $\mathcal{PT}$ - invariant complex QES periodic potentials. We study in detail the various properties of the corresponding Bender–Dunne polynomials.

    • Solutions of several coupled discrete models in terms of Lamé polynomials of order one and two

      Avinash Khare Avadh Saxena

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      Coupled discrete models abound in several areas of physics. Here we provide an extensive set of exact quasiperiodic solutions of a number of coupled discrete models in terms of Lamé polynomials of order one and two. Some of the models discussed are: (i) coupled Salerno model, (ii) coupled Ablowitz–Ladik model, (iii) coupled saturated discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation, (iv) coupled $\phi^4$ model and (v) coupled $\phi^6$ model. Furthermore, we show that most of these coupled models in fact also possess an even broader class of exact solutions.

    • Solutions of several coupled discrete models in terms of Lamé polynomials of arbitrary order

      Avinash Khare Avadh Saxena Apoorva Khare

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      Coupled discrete models are ubiquitous in a variety of physical contexts. We provide an extensive set of exact quasiperiodic solutions of a number of coupled discrete models in terms of Lamé polynomials of arbitrary order. The models discussed are: (i) coupled Salerno model, (ii) coupled Ablowitz–Ladik model, (iii) coupled $\phi^4$ model and (iv) coupled $\phi^6$ model. In all these cases we show that the coefficients of the Lamé polynomials are such that the Lamé polynomials can be re-expressed in terms of Chebyshev polynomials of the relevant Jacobi elliptic function.

    • A quantum Hamilton–Jacobi proof of the nodal structure of the wave functions of supersymmetric partner potentials

      S Sree Ranjani A K Kapoor Avinash Khare P K Panigrahi

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      Quantum Hamilton–Jacobi formalism is used to give a proof for Gozzi’s criterion, which states that for eigenstates of the supersymmetric partners, corresponding to the same energy, the difference in the number of nodes is equal to one when supersymmetry (SUSY) is unbroken and is zero when SUSY is broken. We also show that this proof is also applicable to the case, where isospectral deformation is involved.

    • PT-symmetric dimer of coupled nonlinear oscillators

      Avinash Khare

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      We provide a systematic analysis of a prototypical nonlinear oscillator system respecting PT-symmetry, i.e., one of them has gain and the other an equal and opposite amount of loss. We first discuss various symmetries of the model. We show that both the linear system as well as a special case of the nonlinear system can be derived from a Hamiltonian, whose structure is similar to the Pais–Uhlenbeck Hamiltonian. Exact solutions are obtained in a few special cases. We show that the system is a superintegrable system within the rotating wave approximation (RWA). We also obtain several exact solutions of these RWA equations. Further, we point out a novel superposition in the context of periodic solutions in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions that we obtain in this problem. Finally, we briefly mention numerical results about the stability of some of the solutions.

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