• Anil Kumar

      Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics

    • Impurity effects on the critical behaviour of the electrical resistance of binary liquid mixtures

      Anil Kumar E S R Gopal

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      The electrical resistance of the binary liquid system cyclohexane + acetic anhydride is measured, in the critical region, both in the pure mixture and when the mixture is doped with small amounts (≈ 100 ppm) of H2O/D2O impurities.Tc was approached to aboutt=3×10−6 wheret=(TTc)/Tc. The critical exponentb ≈ 0.35 in the fit of the resistance data to the equationdR/dTt−b does not seem to be affected appreciably by the impurities. There is a sign reversal ofdR/dt in the non-critical region. Binary liquid systems seem to violate the universality of the critical resistivity.

    • Flip angle dependence in two-dimensional multiple quantum coherencenmr spectroscopy

      N Murali Y V S Ramakrishna K Chandrasekhar M Albert Thomas Anil Kumar

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      The multiple-quantum pathway description developed earlier for two-dimensional single-quantum correlation spectroscopy (cosy), is generalized and applied to the two-dimensional multiple-quantum transitions (2Dmqt) spectroscopy. The connectivity classes ofcosy are also generalized tomqt spectroscopy. The pathway description allows a straightforward method of computation of the flip angle dependence of the intensity of various peaks in two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy. It is shown that a variation of flip angle allows distinction between various classes and types of transitions, as well as optimization of experiment for selective detection of certain classes of peaks in 2D spectroscopy.

    • Evaluation of one-centre electron interaction integrals over slater type atomic orbitals

      Anil Kumar P C Mishra

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      Simplified expressions for one-centre electron interaction integrals in general and Slater-Condon parameters as well as repulsion integrals of the type (aa|aa) in particular have been obtained over Slater-type atomic orbitals. Results calculated using these expressions are in agreement with those due to other authors.

    • Quantum entanglement in the NMR implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm

      Arvind Kavita Dorai Anil Kumar

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      A scheme to execute an 𝑛-bit Deutsch-Jozsa (DJ) algorithm using 𝑛 qubits has been implemented for up to three cubits on an NMR quantum computer. For the one- and the two-bit Deutsch problem, the qubits do not get entangled, and the NMR implementation is achieved without using spin-spin interactions. It is for the three-bit case, that the manipulation of entangled states becomes essential. The interactions through scalar 𝐽-couplings in NMR spin systems have been exploited to implement entangling transformations required for the three bit DJ algorithm.

    • Developments in quantum information processing by nuclear magnetic resonance: Use of quadrupolar and dipolar couplings

      Anil Kumar K V Ramanathan T S Mahesh Neeraj Sinha KVRM Murali

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      Use of dipolar and quadrupolar couplings for quantum information processing (QIP) by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is described. In these cases, instead of the individual spins being qubits, the 2n energy levels of the spin-system can be treated as an n-qubit system. It is demonstrated that QIP in such systems can be carried out using transition-selective pulses, in CH3CN, 13CH3CN, 7Li (I=3/2) and 133Cs (I=7/2), oriented in liquid crystals yielding 2 and 3 qubit systems. Creation of pseudopure states, implementation of logic gates and arithmetic operations (half-adder and subtractor) have been carried out in these systems using transition-selective pulses.

    • The kinetics of Cr layer coated on TiNi films for hydrogen absorption

      M Singh Vaibhav Kulsherstha Anil Kumar N K Acharaya Y K Vijay

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      The effect of hydrogen absorption on electrical resistance with temperature for TiNi and TiNi–Cr thin films was investigated. The TiNi thin films of thickness 800 Å were deposited at different angles ($\theta = 0^{\circ}, 30^{\circ}, 45^{\circ}, 60^{\circ}$ and $75^{\circ}) under 10$^{−5}$ Torr pressure by thermal evaporation on the glass substrate at room temperature. A layer of Cr of thickness 100 Å was coated on the TiNi thin films. The changing rate of hydrogen absorption increases after Cr layer coating because Cr enhances the catalytic properties of hydrogen absorption in thin films. The rate of hydrogen absorption increases with temperature at lower range but at higher range of temperature it was found to decrease and also it was found that the hydrogen absorption increases with angle of deposition.

    • Effect of normal processes on thermal conductivity of germanium, silicon and diamond

      Banashree Saikai Anil Kumar

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      The effect of normal scattering processes is considered to redistribute the phonon momentum in (a) the same phonon branch – KK-S model and (b) between different phonon branches – KK-H model. Simplified thermal conductivity relations are used to estimate the thermal conductivity of germanium, silicon and diamond with natural isotopes and highly enriched isotopes. It is observed that the consideration of the normal scattering processes involving different phonon branches gives better results for the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity of germanium, silicon and diamond with natural and highly enriched isotopes. Also, the estimation of the lattice thermal conductivity of germanium and silicon for these models with the consideration of quadratic form of frequency dependences of phonon wave vector leads to the conclusion that the splitting of longitudinal and transverse phonon modes, as suggested by Holland, is not an essential requirement to explain the entire temperature dependence of lattice thermal conductivity whereas KK-H model gives a better estimation of the thermal conductivity without the splitting of the acoustic phonon modes due to the dispersive nature of the phonon dispersion curves.

    • Bianchi type-V string cosmological models in general relativity

      Anil Kumar Yadav Vineet Kumar Yadav Lallan Yadav

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      Bianchi type-V string cosmological models in general relativity are investigated. To get the exact solution of Einstein’s field equations, we have taken some scale transformations used by Camci et al [Astrophys. Space Sci. 275, 391 (2001)]. It is shown that Einstein’s field equations are solvable for any arbitrary cosmic scale function. Solutions for particular forms of cosmic scale functions are also obtained. Some physical and geometrical aspects of the models are discussed.

    • Real-time stand-off detection of improvised explosive materials using time-gated UV–Raman spectroscopy


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      A transportable, trolley-mounted stand-off explosive material detection system based on the time-gated Raman spectroscopy was developed and tested in our laboratory. This system is capable of identifying the explosives and improvised explosive materials located up to a distance of 30 m. A frequency tripled Nd:YAG, nanosecond pulsed laser (355 nm, 6 ns) operated at 10 Hz was used as an excitation source to induce Raman spectra of explosive materials under investigation. A reflected type 200 mm aperture telescope designed using Zemax opticaldesign software was used to collect the backscattered Raman signals. Raman signals were recorded using the gated intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) spectrograph. A LabVIEW-based data acquisition and analysis software for real-time identification of materials was developed and used. It gives audio as well as text alarm to the operatorabout threat identification.

    • Hybrid scheme for factorisation: Factoring 551 using a 3-qubit NMR quantum adiabatic processor


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      Quantum processors are potentially superior to their classical counterparts for many computational tasks including factorisation. Circuit methods as well as adiabatic methods have already been proposed and implemented for finding the factors of a given composite number. The main challenge in scaling it to larger numbers is the unavailability of large number of qubits. Here, we propose a hybrid scheme that involves both classical and quantum computation, based on the previous work of Peng et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(22), 220405 (2008), which reduces the number of qubits required for factorisation. The classical part involves setting up and partially simplifying a set of bit-wise factoring equations and the quantum part involves solving these coupled equations using a quantum adiabatic process. We demonstrate the hybrid scheme by factoring 551 using a 3-qubit NMR quantum register.

    • Singularity-free non-exotic compact star in $f (R, T)$ gravity


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      In the present work, we have searched for the existence of anisotropic and non-singular compact star in the $f (R, T)$ gravity by taking into account the non-exotic equation of state (EoS). In order to obtain the solutions of the matter content of the compact object, we assume the well-known barotropic form of EoS that yields the linear relation between pressures and energy density. We propose the existence of non-exotic compact star which shows the validation of energy conditions and stability within the perspective of $f (R,T)$ extended theory of gravity. The linear material correction in the extended theory and matter content of compact star can remarkably satisfy energy condition. We discuss various physical features of the compact star and show that the proposed model of the stellar object satisfies all regularity conditions and is stable as well as singularity-free.

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