• A Sequeira

      Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics

    • An on-line TDC-312 computer-controlled neutron diffractometer

      A Sequeira S N Momin H Rajagopal J N Soni R Chidambaram Dilip Kumar A Ramana Rao V M Gopu

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      The design and fabrication of an indigenous on-line computer controlled four-circle neutron diffractometer at the CIRUS reactor in Trombay are described. The diffractometer has an 18 in dia full-circle crystal-orienter which is sturdy enough to carry a cryostat. Three crystal orientation angles χ, φ and ω and the detector angle 2θ can be set to an accuracy of 0·01°. The four angle shafts are driven through precision worm-gears by SCR-controlled DC motors and their instantaneous positions sensed by optical digitizers. The diffractometer is interfaced to an ECIL TDC-312 computer system consisting of the CPU with 4K-memory, ASR-35 teletype, X-Y plotter and the digital input/output system (DIOS). The DIOS which operates under program control is a real-time peripheral device used to exchange information in digital form between the computer and the diffractometer. A software package consisting of over 40 useroriented teletype commands has been developed for on-line control and automatic data-acquisition.

    • Refinement of twinned crystal data

      Sandhya Bhakay-Tamhane A Sequeira

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      The refinement of structure from diffraction intensities measured from a twinned crystal involves the evaluation of intensity contributions from the various twin domains in the crystal and the corresponding structure factor derivatives. The modifications in the standard least-squares refinement program required for analysis of data from a twinned crystal sample are discussed. The procedure can be extended to cases involving more than two types of twin domains or to samples having mixed phases. The results and limitations of structure refinement using data obtained from a twinned LiKSO4 crystal in various low-temperature phases are illustrated.

    • On multiple small-angle scattering

      S Mazumder A Sequeira

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      An analytical approach has been taken for analyzing the multiple scattering effects in small angle scattering (SAS) from both monodisperse and polydisperse systems. Two limiting regions, viz the Guinier region and the Porod region have been studied. A modified form of Guinier law has been deduced for the scattered intensity distribution in the region of small wave vector transfer, q. In the regionq(=|q|)→∞, it is shown that the effect of multiple scattering does not alter the Porod (q−4) law. In the case of polydisperse systems, a correlation has been established between the size distribution of the inhomogeneities and the experimentally extractable parameters. The validity of the formalism has been examined by reinterpretation of the multiple SANS data (Hardman-Rhyne and Berk 1985) on polydisperse Al2O3 samples. This formalism is useful in characterizing the inhomogeneities from SAS measurements, particularly when thick samples are used.

    • Multiple small-angle scattering—A review

      S Mazumder A Sequeira

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      Small-angle scattering (SAS) is a powerful experimental technique in condensed matter physics for studying structural features of inhomogeneities of colloidal dimensions. So far the technique has been largely exploited to study thin samples for which the single scattering approximation, for the radiation-matrix interaction, holds good. The single scattering approximation is invalid when the thickness of the sample exceeds the scattering mean free path. This situation calls for a guideline to analyse the scattering data having significant contribution from multiple scattering. Since multiple scattering broadens the scattering profile, the beam broadening nature of multiple scattering can also be exploited, by making the sample suitably thick, to study large size inhomogeneities which are otherwise inaccessible to a small-angle scattering set up because of its resolution constraints. The present article presents a review and extension of the theoretical basis for analysing multiple scattering data from the point of view of a recent formalism on multiple small-angle scattering. The formalism is valid for both monodisperse and polydisperse scattering media characterized by the presence of large size inhomogeneities in the matrix. It is shown that multiple scattering from a polydisperse sample can be described by a system of coupled integrodifferential equation. However, multiple scattering from a monodisperse sample can be described by a Fokker-Planck type of equation. These equations have been analysed with an emphasis laid on the nature of the structural information pertaining to the inhomogeneities which is extractable from the multiple scattering profile. When the linear dimension of inhomogeneities becomes comparable to the scattering mean free path of the radiation in the sample, the statistical nature of the medium becomes pronounced. The statistical nature of the medium modulates the scattering profile. The modulation effect could be broadening or narrowing of the profile depending upon the nature of the inhomogeneities and their population distribution. The limiting regimes of validity and the implications of various approximations, frequently used to analyse the scattering data, have been indicated.

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