• A K Sood

      Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics

    • Model for infrared and Raman studies of molecular rotations in liquids and gases

      S Dattagupta A K Sood

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      Experimental infrared and Raman data for molecular rotations in dense phases often lie in between the results predicted by theJ- andM-diffusion models of Gordon. In this paper, we present a theory which is similar in its basic approach to Gordon’s extended diffusion models (EDM) but in which the restrictions of theJ andM limits are removed. The outcome is a scheme which allows one to describe situations which fall between the two extreme pictures of theJ andM models. Application of this scheme to experiments is discussed.

    • Raman study of temperature dependence of lattice modes in calcite

      A K Sood A K Arora V Umadevi G Venkataraman

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      The temperature dependence of the line width and the peak position of theEg librational mode (of nominal frequency 285 cm−1) and theEg translational mode (of nominal frequency 155 cm−1) in calcite (CaCO3) have been studied by laser-Raman spectrometry. The role of orientational relaxation as a possible process contributing to the line width has been evaluated. It is concluded that reorientations do not play a major part in relation to the present observations. It is further shown that the latter can be understood on the basis of cubic and quartic anharmonic processes. The data also suggest that certain phonon interactions earlier considered insignificant for peak shift in calcite, do contribute significantly.

    • Model for vibrational relaxation: Pure-dephasing and depopulation

      A K Sood S Dattagupta

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      The three dominant mechanisms giving major contributions to vibrational relaxation in molecular systems are (a) pure dephasing, (b) depopulation (or energy relaxation), and (c) resonant transfer. Here (c) is not considered but the effects due to thesimultaneous occurrence of (a) and (b) are treated within a stochastic model. In dealing with (a), the vibrational frequency is assumed to undergo random uncorrelated ‘jump’, due to fluctuations in the environment of the active molecule between a continuous set of values. The ensuing results are somewhat different from those of the commonly used Kubo model of vibrational dephasing, especially at long times and appear to be better suited in interpreting certain experimental data. The model is next extended to include the simultaneous occurrence of (b). The calculation leads to two important conclusions: (i) the lineshape is not just the convolution of those due to (a) and (b), and (ii) the lineshape is asymmetric, if the intermolecular interactions are not isotropic.

    • Infrared studies on ion irradiated quartz

      A K Sood V Umadevi R Kesavamoorthy G Venkataraman

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      Damage produced inα- and fused quartz bombarded with low energy (∼ 100 keV) D+, He+ and Ar+ ions, has been studied by observing the changes in their spectrum. Besides bulk reflectivity, the attenuated total reflection spectrum has also been studied, the latter with a view to obtaining the surface polariton frequencies. It is observed that for the same fluence, the changes following D+ irradiation are much higher compared to that for Ar+ irradiation. The variation of the surface polariton frequency inα-quartz with the damage energy deposited has the same trend as observed earlier for refractive index. Some annealing studies have also been performed in argon-irradiated samples. These studies indicate that whereas in fused quartz the damaged layer recovers completely, inα-quartz there is a residual amorphization even after annealing. A two-layer model is proposed which gives a reasonable simulation of the observedir properties.

    • Interpolation model for molecular reorientation in gases and liquids

      S K Deb A K Sood

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      The interpolation model for molecular reorientation in gases and liquids has been extended to the case for symmetric top molecules. It has been compared with experimental correlation functions for linear as well as prolate and oblate symmetric top molecules. The agreement is excellent for systems where the intermolecular torque is small. With increasing torque, there is discrepancy at short times whereas at intermediate and long times the decay is described quite well. However for liquids at low temperatures, the description of molecular reorientation within the framework of this model is unsatisfactory.

    • Effect of iron doping and oxygen stoichiometry on infrared absorption in Y1Ba2Cu3O7−δ

      A K Sood K Sankaran Y Hariharan S Vijayalakshmi V Sankara Sastry S Kalavathi J Janaki

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      We report infrared absorption of Y1Ba2Cu3O7−δ as a function of oxygen stoichiometry (0<δ<1) and copper substitution by iron in the spectral range of 450–700 cm−1. The strong bands associated with Cu-O vibrations undergo significant changes in their frequencies and intensities asδ is varied across the orthorhombic to tetragonal phase. These changes coupled with those arising as a result of doping with iron has helped in identifying the nature of the vibrational modes.

    • Structure factor of charged colloidal suspensions using Brownian-dynamics simulation: Comparison of Yukawa and Sogami pair potentials

      B V R Tata A K Sood R Kesavamoorthy

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      Static structure factorsS(Q) are obtained for dilute charged colloidal systems using Brownian dynamics simulation method for the widely used screened Coulomb repulsive Yukawa potential and the recently proposed Sogami pair potential. The latter potential has, in addition to the usual repulsive part, an attractive term which is necessary to understand the reentrant phase transition reported in these colloids. It is shown for the first time thatS(Q) obtained using the Sogami potential for parameters favourable for liquid-like order agrees well with that measured experimentally. Thus it appears that the Sogami potential explains features of a homogeneous liquid as well as phase separated states, whereas Yukawa potential does not.

    • Structure and vibrational properties of carbon tubules

      N Chandrabhas A K Sood D Sundararaman S Raju V S Raghunathan GVN Rao V S Sastry T S Radhakrishnan Y Hariharan A Bharathi C S Sundar

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      The structure of multilayered carbon tubules has been investigated by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The structure of tubules is characterized by disorder in the stacking of cylindrical graphene sheets. Raman scattering measurements have been carried out in tubules and compared with graphite. The observed features in the Raman spectra in tubules can be understood in terms of the influence of disorder. The additional Raman modes predicted for single layer carbon tubules have not been observed.

    • Linear and nonlinear rheology of wormlike micelles

      A K Sood Ranjini Bandyopadhyay Geetha Basappa

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      Several surfactant molecules self-assemble in solution to form long, cylindrical, flexible wormlike micelles. These micelles can be entangled with each other leading to viscoelastic phases. The rheological properties of such phases are very interesting and have been the subject of a large number of experimental and theoretical studies in recent years. We shall report our recent work on the macrorheology, microrheology and nonlinear flow behaviour of dilute aqueous solutions of a surfactant CTAT (Cetyltrimethylammonium Tosilate). This system forms elongated micelles and exhibits strong viscoelasticity at low concentrations (∼0.9 wt%) without the addition of electrolytes. Microrheology measurements of G(θ) have been done using diffusing wave spectroscopy which will be compared with the conventional frequency sweep measurements done using a cone and plate rheometer. The second part of the paper deals with the nonlinear rheology where the measured shear stress σ is a nonmonotonic function of the shear rate $$\dot \gamma $$. In stress-controlled experiments, the shear stress shows a plateau for $$\dot \gamma $$ larger than some critical strain rate, similar to the earlier reports on CPyCl/NaSal system. Cates et al have proposed that the plateau is a signature of mechanical instability in the form of shear bands. We have carried out extensive experiments under controlled strain rate conditions, to study the time-dependence of shear stress. The measured time series of shear stress has been analysed in terms of correlation integral and Lyapunov exponent to show unambiguously that the behaviour is typical of low dimensional dynamical systems.

    • Order and chaos in soft condensed matter

      A K Sood Rajesh Ganapathy

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      Soft matter, like colloidal suspensions and surfactant gels, exhibit strong response to modest external perturbations. This paper reviews our recent experiments on the nonlinear flow behaviour of surfactant worm-like micellar gels. A rich dynamic behaviour exhibiting regular, quasi-periodic, intermittency and chaos is observed. In particular, we have shown experimentally that the route to chaos is via Type-II intermittency in shear thinning worm-like micellar solution of cetyltrimethylammonium tosylate where the strength of flow-concentration coupling is tuned by the addition of sodium chloride. A Poincaré first return map of the time series and the probability distribution of laminar length between burst events show that our data are consistent with Type-II intermittency. The existence of a ‘Butterfly’ intensity pattern in small angle light scattering (SALS) measurements performed simultaneously with the rheological measurements confirms the coupling of flow to concentration fluctuations in the system under study. The scattered depolarised intensity in SALS, sensitive to orientational order fluctuations, shows the same time-dependence (like intermittency) as that of shear stress.

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