Comparative morphological and anatomical investigations on the seed of two major pulsesCicer arietinum L. (Desi Chana) andCajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. var.bicolor DC. (Arhar)—vis-a-vis their common adulterant (Lathyrus sativus L. (Khesari Dal)), have yielded several features of value in pin-pointing adulteration in the market samples. Being basically similar in constitution, the seed coat in all the three taxons-comprises (i) a cuticle, (ii) an epidermis, (iii) a hypodermis, and (iv) a mesophyll. While the cuticle is ‘thick and wavy’ inCicer arietinum and ‘thin and smooth’ inCajanus cajan, it is notably ‘thick and dentate’ inLathyrus sativus. The macrosclereids constituting the epidermis and osteosclereids forming the hypodermis provide a set of contrasting features with regard to their shape, size, thickness and lumen/corrugation thereof.