The structure of the stipe and basal, middle and apical regions of the pod is described. The older stipe shows secondary growth as in a dicotyledonous stem. The stipe at its junction with the valves shows three vascular bundles, one large and two small, arranged in a triangular manner, with 3–5 lateral bundles inProsopis juliflora. The mature pericarp ofP. cineraria has one dorsal and two ventral vascular sutural bundles, but inP. juliflora there is a pair of vascular bundles in each suture. The valvular structure can be distinguished into one layered epicarp, multilayered mesocarp and few to many layered endocarp. The outer mesocarpic layers and all endocarpic layers are sclerenchymatous inP. juliflora but only the endocarpic layers are collenchymatous inP. cineraria. Within the circumscription of structural types of pod described by Fahn and Zohary (1955), theTrifolium type (form d) is found inP. cineraria and theCyanophyllum type inP. juliflora. Taxonomic importance of anatomical characters is brought to light to separate the two taxa.