Prolactin secreting cells are identified in thepars distalis of Mus platythrix by conventional methods of light and electron microscopy. Two types of prolactin secreting cells are recognised. These types are estrone-sensitive, mammotrophic type I, and luteotrophic type II, respectively. Histochemical analysis revealed that the cells are rich in RNA, basic proteins, alkaline phosphatase and are resistant to extraction with 0·5% trichloroacetic acid. Quantitative data showed that the prolactin secreting cells increase during pregnancy, lactation and estrone treatment. Estrone at low dose levels caused immense hyperplasia whereas at higher levels there was no corresponding increase in the percentage of type I cells. Ultrastructurally, prolactin secreting cells are characterised by the presence of stacked endoplasmic reticulum, oval or irregular secretory granules. The Golgi apparatus is seen rich in vacuolar system.