• H P Sharma

      Articles written in Proceedings – Plant Sciences

    • Embryological studies in the Composite Astereae-II

      H P Sharma Y S Murty

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      The embryology ofFelicia bergeriana O. Hoffm,Conyza stricta Willd. andErigeron bonariensis L. has been studied. The anthers are tetrasporangiate inC. stricta andF. bergeriana and bisporangiate inE. bonariensis. The anther wall consists of epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and tapetum. Binucleate, tetranucleate and 12 nucleate tapetal cells have been observed respectively inE. bonariensis,C. stricta andF. bergeriana. The tapetum forms periplasmodium and endothecial thickenings are formed in all the species studied. Pollen grains are shed at 3 celled stage. The ovule is anatropous, unitegmic and tenuinucellate. The mature embryo sac is 8 nucleate polygonum type in all the species studied. As many as 6 antipodal cells inErigeron bonariensis and 12 inC. stricta are observed due to secondary multiplication. InF. bergeriana the antipodal cells become 2–4 nucleate. The persistence of antipodal tissue and its penetration into chalazal region confirm haustorial nature. The endosperm is nuclear inE. bonariensis andC. stricta and cellular inF. bergeriana. The outer cells of endosperm form jacket layer which persists surrounding the mature embryo. The embryo development is of the Asterad type and resembles the Senecio variation.

    • Pharmacognostic studies onDillenia indica Linn. I. Leaf

      Usha Shome R K Khanna H P Sharma

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      Dillenia indica Linn, is widely used in the indigenous systems of medicine; the leaf and bark as an astringent, the bruised bark, externally as a cataplasm in arthritis, and the fruit juice as a cough mixture, a cooling beverage as also for toning up the nervous system. It is considered a ‘vat’ suppressant ‘pitta’ augmenting drug in Ayurveda. The paper deals with pharmacognosy of the leaf ofD. indica. The characters studied in detail include both macroscopic and microscopic characters; physical and other constants, such as stomatal index, palisade ratio, vein islet numbers, vein termination numbers, ash values, percentages of tannins, total sugars and reducing sugars. Preliminary phytochemical tests, TLC and fluorescence tests have also been carried out.

    • Pharmacognostic studies ofDillenia indica Linn. II—Fruit and seed

      Usha Shome R K Khanna H P Sharma

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      Pharmacognosy of the fruit ofDillenia indica has been studied in detail to find out reliable criteria for distinguishing the drug from its possible adulterants. The present paper deals with the anatomy of the pedicel, the fruit and also microscopic characters of the pollen and seed. Other possible parameters studied includes physico-chemical constants such as ash values, titrable acid number, percentages of tannins, sugars and different extractives. Qualitative detection of broad chemical constituents of the various extractives, their thin layer chromatography and fluorescence tests of the drug powder have also been carried out.

    • Pharmacognostic studies on the flower ofWoodfordia fruticosa Kurz

      Usha Shome Shanta Mehrotra H P Sharma

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      Pharmacognosy of the flowers ofWoodfordia fruticosa Kurz has been carried out to lay down standards for the genuine drug “Dhataki”. The paper deals with the detailed anatomy of the pedicel and various floral appendages, pollen ornamentation, seed with unusual mucilage hairs and embryo characters. Histochemical tests and fluorescence characteristics are also described. Thin layer bidirectional chromatography of petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, alcohol and water extractives was performed. Other parameters studied include physicochemical constants, e.g. ash values, percentages of tannins, sugars and different extractives.

    • Pharmacognostic studies on the flower ofMesua ferrea L.

      Usha Shome Shanta Mehrotra H P Sharma

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      Stamens ofMesua ferrea L. constitute the genuine ‘Nagkeshara’ of Ayurveda, a drug considered to be astringent, stomachic and expectorant. The present communication deals with detailed pharmacognosy of the drug and includes morphological, anatomical as well as certain phytochemical characters of the floral parts ofMesua ferrea. Some of the distinguishing characters are: cortical fibbres, numerous resin canals and calcium oxalate crystals in the cortex and pith of the pedicel; anamocytic, anisocytic or paracytic stomata on sepals and petals; and 3-(4-) zonocolporate pollen grains with reticulate exine surface. Fluorescence analysis, behaviour of the drug with certain chemical reagents and thin layer chromatography were also carried out.

    • Leaf surface studies of some medicinal salvias

      H P Sharma Usha Shome

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      Scanning electron microscopic studies on the leaves of 8 medicinal salvias comprising mainly surface ornamentation of the various epidermal cells and the appendages, provide useful parameters to distinguish one species from another. Some of the distinguishing features of the species studied are:Salvia cabulica Benth.—Striated lower epidermis, etomatal ledges broad and smooth;S. lanata Roxb.—Abaxial side completely covered over by a thick coat of trichomes;S. macrosiphon Boiss.—verrucose trichomes with constricted joints;S. moorcroftiana Wall.—longitudinal folds on basal cells of trichomes;S. officinalis Linn.—curved cylindrical trichomes, cells over veins with characteristic longitudinal ridges, gland stalk very long;S. plebeia R. Br.—basal cells of trichomes transversely striated;S. pratensis Linn.—verrucose trichomes and series of irregular folds on lower epidermis;S. spinosa Linn.—smooth collapsible hairs, folds on general surface similar toS. pratensis.

    • Pharmacognostic studies on ‘Sappan’ (Caesalpinia sappan Linn.) and its market samples

      Shanta Mehrotra H P Sharma

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      ‘Sappan’ is considered a valuable astringent, alterative tonic, emmenagogue, blood purifier and anticoagulant. It strengthens the bones and teeth and is also used in boils and eruptions. The drug is ascribed to the heartwood ofCaesalpinia sappan. Accordingly, a detailed pharmacognosy ofCaesalpinia sappan was carried out and eight market samples of ‘Sappan’ procured from various parts of the country were evaluated with reference to the genuine drug. The present studies revealed that out of all the market samples studied only those from Bombay (B-II), Rishikesh and Hardwar resembled the genuine drug and were therefore identified as genuineC. sappan. The remaining samples were identified as differentPterocarpus species,Gluta travancorea Bedd. andToona ciliata M. J. Roem.

    • Pharmacognostic studies onArtemisia scoparia Waldst. and Kit.

      Usha Shome Pammie Joshi H P Sharma

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      Pharmacognosy of the floral and vegetative parts ofArtemisia scoparia Waldst, and Kit. (‘Dona’), a bitter aromatic herb used in the indigenous systems of medicine, was carried out with a view to lay down standards for the genuine drug. The parameters studied include anatomical and microscopic details of the different parts; certain physico-chemical constants such as ash values, percentage of tannins, and successive extractives; as well as qualitative detection of the main chemical constitutents in the various extractives. Thin layer chromatography and fluorescence tests of drug powder were also carried out. Presence of casparian strips in the endodermis, resin canals, four-to eight-celled characteristic glandular hairs on the corolla and absence of pappus are some of the diagnostic features of the drug.

    • Pharmacognostic studies on the flower ofCalophyllum inophyllum Linn

      Shanta Mehrotra Usha Shome H P Sharma

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      Calophyllum inophyllum Linn is one of the important Ayurvedic drug plants of which practically all parts are used medicinally. Among these flowers and stamens are often used as a substitute for ‘Nagkesara’. This paper deals with a detailed pharmacognosy of the flower ofC. inophyllum. Physico-chemical constants, preliminary phytochemical studies, fluorescence analysis, behaviour of powdered drug with differnt chemical reagents and thin layer chromatography were also carried out.

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