• Sunetra Giridhar

      Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy

    • Abundance analysis of selected cepheids and the galactic distribution of metallicity

      Sunetra Giridhar

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      We have determined the atmospheric abundances of selected Cepheids in order to study the large-scale chemical inhomogeneities across the galactic disk. The classical Cepheids were selected as probes to study the variation of metallicity in the galactic disk, because of their high intrinsic luminosity, small age and the existence of period-luminosity and period-age relationships. High dispersion spectra of programme stars WZ Sgr, X Sgr, ς Gem, T Mon and S V Mon were obtained using the 102-cm reflector of Kavalur Observatory. The atmospheric abundances were determined by theoretically synthesizing the selected portions of the stellar spectrum and comparing with the observed spectra. In order to compute the theoretical spectrum, the formal solution of the equation of radiative transfer was numerically evaluated with the simplifying assumptions of local thermodynamical equilibrium, plane-parallel geometry and hydrostatic equilibrium. These assumptions are reasonably good for the metallic lines of F-G supergiants and hence the observations were confined to the phases where Cepheids behave like nonvariable F-G supergiants.

      The atmospheric abundances of iron-peak elements, Fe, Cr, Ti, Ca and heavier s-process elements Y, Ba, La, Ce, Sm were obtained by synthesizing a selected spectral region in the range 4330 Å — 4650 Å. We derive a radial abundance gradient for iron$$\frac{{d(Fe/H)}}{{dr_{gc} }} = - 0.056 \pm 0.08$$ for the region of galactic disk between 6.7 and 10.9 kpc from the galactic centre (assuming rgc = 8.5 kpc for the Sun). This value agrees with the one obtained from the general sample of Cepheids for which spectroscopic abundances are available, and also with the existing photometric determinations, but is shallower than the one derived by Luck (1982).

      Abundances of the elements derived in the present investigation do not show any significant correlation with atomic number. Also the abundance ratio of s-process elements does not show any correlation with Fe. This lack of correlation for disk population stars shows the inadequacy of simple models of galactic chemical evolution and favours the infall models. Alternately, the evolution of [s/Fe] may be determined by the ratio of intermediate-mass stars (which contribute s-process nuclei) to high-mass stars (which contribute Fe peak nuclei). Thus the different behaviour of halo and disk population may indicate a difference in the mass spectrum of star formation.

    • Classical cepheids and the local chemical inhomogeneities in the galactic disc

      Sunetra Giridhar

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      Places of formation have been derived for a sample of 23 Cepheids with well-determined atmospheric abundances in an attempt to study the chemical inhomogeneities in the local interstellar medium. The abundance data available for the sample Cepheids is compiled and critically reviewed to adopt the most reliable esimates. We find that the most conspicuous irregularity in the metallicity is exhibited by stars that are born in the local arm or in the interarm region. We propose a scenario to explain these local variations in terms of supernova-induced star formation in interstellar gas enriched by massive stars formed in the density wave.

    • An internally consistent set of oscillator strengths for Fe I lines

      Sunetra Giridhar A. Arellano Ferro

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      We present here an extensive list of internally consistent oscillator strengths for Fe I lines. We have compiled and critically reviewed the oscillator strengths existing in literature. An attempt has been made to scale the oscillator strengths derived by different workers to that of Blackwell and his collaborators and prepare a single consistent set of oscillator strengths.

      We have calibrated a loggf- log λ- E1- log I relationship that can be used for calculatinggf values for Fe I lines with nogf values available. We demonstrate that standard error of such a calibration can be considerably reduced by binning the data in 0.5 eV range in excitation potential.

      We also tabulate systematic corrections to be applied to the oscillator strengths of Kurucz & Peytremann (1975) for lines belonging to different multiplets

    • Emission spectrum of hot R OB star MV Sgr

      N. Kameswara Rao L. Houziaux Sunetra Giridhar

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      The new spectroscopic observation of MV Sgr obtained at ESO in 1987 July shows enhanced emission lines of He I λ3889, [SII] λ4068 relative to the observations discussed by Jeffreyet al. (1988). The presence of [SII] λ4068 indicates the presence of planetary-nebulae-like envelope around the star. Although the radial velocity of the absorption lines and Fe II emission lines do agree with the velocity given by Jeffreyet al., the [SII] λ4068 and probably He I emission lines appear to behave differently.

    • High resolution spectroscopy of R Coronae Borealis during the 1988— 1989 minimum

      David L. Lambert N. Kameswara Rao Sunetra Giridhar

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      Moderate-resolution spectra of the C2 Swan 0-1 bandhead, the Na I D lines and the KI resonance lines near 7660 Å obtained at minimum light during the 1988–1989 decline of R CrB are discussed and interpreted in terms of a popular model for R CrB declines. High-resolution spectra obtained at maximum light show blue-shifted chromospheric emission in the cores of the Na I D and the Sc π 4246.8 Å lines

    • Abundance analysis of the long period southern cepheid RZ Vel

      Sunetra Giridhar A. Arellano Ferro Aruna Goswami

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      The long period classical cepheid RZ Vel (HD 73502) is known to be a member of an OB association, Vel OB1 in Vela, and a high metallicity is ascribed to it by the photometric work of Eggen (1982). We have done an abundance analysis for this long period (P = 20.4 days) and hence young (age ≈ 1.80×107 yr) classical cepheid using high resolution CCD spectra with good S/N ratio. We have used a detailed model atmosphere method to derive the abundances of the light elements C, O, A1, S and of many Fe-peak elements and a few s-process elements. Our present work indicates near solar abundance for most of the elements for RZ Vel and hence we do not confirm the high metallicity derived photometrically by Eggen (1982) for this star

    • High resolution spectroscopy of the semi-regular variable LR Sco

      Sunetra Giridhar N. Kameswara Rao David L. Lambert

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      A detailed spectroscopic investigation of LR Sco which was earlier misclassified as R CrB star is made. Atmospheric parameters and elemental abundances are determined using detailed depth-dependent model atmospheres and line synthesis technique. Most of the elements show near solar abundances.

      The strength of circumstellar components seen in Na D lines are used to derive the mass loss rate. Another independent estimate of mass loss rate is made using the observed infrared flux from 1–100Μm. These two approaches lead to nearly the same value of mass loss rate whenMvis assumed to be – 4.5 for this star.

    • Spectral variations of DY Cen

      Sunetra Giridhar N. Kameswara Rao David L. Lambert

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      Two high resolution spectra of the hot RCrB star DY Cen in the red region are compared. The photospheric absorption lines show a radial velocity variation of 12 kms-1 between 1989 July and 1992 May. Emission components to some CII lines present in 1989 are almost entirely absent in 1992. Nebular forbidden lines of [OI], [NII] and [SII] appear unchanged from 1989 to 1992

    • Galactic chemical evolution and chemical tagging with open clusters

      ARUMALLA B. S. REDDY SUNETRA GIRIDHAR DAVID L. LAMBERT

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      The article presents the consolidated results drawn from the chemical composition studies of Reddy et al. (2012, 2013, 2015, 2016) and Reddy & Lambert (2019), who through the high-dispersion echelle spectra ($R = 60000$) of red giant members in a large sample of Galactic open clusters (OCs), derived stellar parameters and chemical abundances for 24 elements by either line equivalent widths or synthetic spectrum analyses. The focus of this article is on the issues with radial-metallicity distribution and the potential chemical tags offered by OCs. Results of these studies confirm the lack of an age–metallicity relation for OCs but argue that such a lack of trend for OCs arise from the limited coverage in metallicity compared to that of field stars which span a wide range in metallicity and age. Results demonstrate that the sample of clusters constituting a steep radial metallicity gradient of slope $-0.052 \pm 0.011$ dex kpc$^{-1}$ at $R_{\rm gc}$ < 12 kpc are younger than 1.5 Gyr and located close to the Galactic midplane ($|z|$ < 0.5 kpc). Whereas the clusters describing a shallow slope of $-0.015 \pm 0.007$ dex kpc$^{1}$ at $R_{\rm gc}$ > 12 kpc are relatively old with a striking spread in age and height above the midplane (0.5 < $|z|$ < 2.5 kpc). Results of these studies reveal that OCs and field stars yield consistent radial metallicity gradients if the comparison is limited to samples drawn from the similar vertical heights. The computation of Galactic orbits reveals that the outer disk OCs were actually born inward of 12 kpc but the orbital eccentricity has taken them to present locations very far from their birthplaces. Published results for OCs show that the abundances of the heavy elements La, Ce, Nd and Sm but not so obviously Y and Eu vary from one cluster to another across a sample all having about the solar metallicity. For La, Ce, Nd and Sm the amplitudes of the variations at solar metallicity scale approximately with the main s-process contribution to solar system material. Consideration of published abundances of field stars suggest that such a spread in heavy element abundances is present for the thin and thick disk stars of different metallicity. This result provides an opportunity to chemically tag stars by their heavy elements and to reconstruct dissolved open clusters from the field star population.

    • Recent advances in RV Tauri stars

      SUNETRA GIRIDHAR

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      The availability of multi-wavelength observations and parallaxes from the space missions and very comprehensive models of AGB evolution that include the accretion of matter from the circumbinary disc have strongly impacted our understanding of these enigmatic objects. The important developments made in the recent times are summarized here. The revised estimates of luminosities (derived from better-defined Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) and new distances from Gaia DR2) further support the opinion that RV Tauri stars containa mixture of post-AGB stars and post-RGB stars. Their locations in HR diagram also indicate that the instability strip (IS) of RV Tauri stars have a broader extension in the cooler edge than that of classical Cepheids. A newP-L relation has been calibrated for the galactic Cepheids which have a steeper slope than that derived for the Population II Cepheids and RV Tauri stars in Magellanic clouds . The most significant chemical peculiarity exhibited by RV Tauri stars and other post-AGB stars is the selective depletion of refractory elements that correlates with their condensation temperatures. A large range in the size of depletion as well as in the shapes of the depletion curves has been observed. Earlier models to explain this effect were mostly qualitative. Recentinvestigators model these depletions using evolutionary codes (e.g. MESA) to evolve stars in the post-AGB phase, while including accretion of metal-poor gas from circumbinary disc. These authors model the accretion rate onto a the binary post-AGB star from a viscously evolving disc for a range of initial accretion rates and disc masses. It is reported that large initial accretion rates and disc masses are required to explain the large depletion and saturated depletion curve that could extend the evolution time of post-AGB star. It is also proposed that theunsaturated depletion curve (with a plateau) are likely to be caused by post-RGB stars.

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    • Continuous Article Publication

      Posted on January 27, 2016

      Since January 2016, the Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy has moved to Continuous Article Publishing (CAP) mode. This means that each accepted article is being published immediately online with DOI and article citation ID with starting page number 1. Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately. All these have helped shorten the publication time and have improved the visibility of the articles.

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      Posted on July 25, 2019

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