Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy

    • Prospects of Measuring the Angular Power Spectrum of the Diffuse Galactic Synchrotron Emission with SKA1 Low

      Sk. Saiyad Ali Somnath Bharadwaj Samir Choudhuri Abhik Ghosh Nirupam Roy

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      The Diffuse Galactic Syncrotron Emission (DGSE) is the most important diffuse foreground component for future cosmological 21-cm observations. The DGSE is also an important probe of the cosmic ray electron and magnetic field distributions in the turbulent interstellar medium (ISM) of our galaxy. In this paper we briefly review the Tapered Gridded Estimator (TGE) which can be used to quantify the angular power spectrum $C_\ell$ of the sky signal directly from the visibilities measured in radio-interferometric observations. The salient features of the TGE are: (1) it deals with the gridded data which makes it computationally very fast, (2) it avoids a positive noise bias which normally arises from the system noise inherent to the visibility data, and (3) it allows us to taper the sky response and thereby suppresses the contribution from unsubtracted point sources in the outer parts and the side lobes of the antenna beam pattern. We also summarize earlier work where the TGE was used to measure the $C_\ell$ of the DGSE using 150 MHz GMRT data. Earlier measurements of $C_\ell$ are restricted to $\ell \le \ell _{\max } \sim 10^{3}$ for the DGSE, the signal at the larger $\ell$ values is dominated by the residual point sources after source subtraction. The higher sensitivity of the upcoming SKA1 Low will allow the point sources to be subtracted to a fainter level than possible with existing telescopes. We predict that it will be possible to measure the $C_\ell$ of the DGSE to larger values of $\ell _{\max }$ with SKA1 Low. Our results show that it should be possible to achieve $\ell _{\max }\sim 10^{4}$ and $∼10^5$ with 2 minutes and 10 hours of observations respectively.

    • Detecting galaxies in a large Hi spectral cube


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      The upcoming square kilometer array (SKA) is expected to produce humongous amount of data for undertaking Hi science. We have developed an MPI-based Python pipeline to deal with the large data efficiently with the present computational resources. Our pipeline divides such large Hi 21-cm spectral cubes into several small cubelets, and then processes them in parallel using publicly available Hi source finder SoFiA- 2. The pipeline also takes care of sources at the boundaries of the cubelets and also filters out false and redundant detections. By comapring with the true source catalog, we find that the detection efficiency depends on the SoFiA- 2 parameters, such as the smoothing kernel size, linking length and threshold values. We find the optimal kernel size for all flux bins to be between 3–5 and 7–15 pixels, respectively, in the spatial and frequency directions. Comparing the recovered source parameters with the original values, we find that the output of SoFiA- 2 is highly dependent on kernel sizes and a single choice of kernel is not sufficient for all types of Hi galaxies. We also propose the use of alternative methods to SoFiA- 2, which can be used in our pipeline to find sources more robustly.

    • Probing early Universe through redshifted 21-cm signal: Modeling and observational challenges


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      Cosmic dawn (CD) and the epoch of reionization (EoR) are the most important parts of cosmic history during which the first luminous structures emerged. These first objects heated and ionized the neutral atomic hydrogen in the intergalactic medium. The redshifted 21-cm radiation from the atomic hydrogen providesan excellent direct probe to study the evolution of neutral hydrogen (Hi) and thus reveal nature of the first luminous objects, their evolution and role in this last phase transition of the Universe and formation and evolution of the structures thereafter. Direct mapping of the Hi density during the CD–EoR is rather difficult with thecurrent and forthcoming instruments due to stronger foreground and other observational contamination. The first detection of this redshifted Hi signal is expected to be done through statistical estimators. Given the upmost importance of the detection and analysis of the redshifted 21-cm signal, physics of CD–EoR is considered asone of the objective of the upcoming SKA-low telescope. This paper summarizes the collective effort of Indianastronomers to understand the origin of the redshifted 21-cm signal, sources of first ionizing photons, their propagation through the IGM, various cosmological effects on the expected 21-cm signal, various statistical measures of the signal like power spectrum, bispectrum, etc. A collective effort on detection of such signalby developing e stimators of the statistical measures with rigorous assessment of their expected uncertainties, various challenges like that of the large foreground emission and calibration issues are also discussed. Various versions of the detection methods discussed here have also been used in practice with the Giant MeterwaveRadio Telescope with successful assessment of the foreground contamination and upper limits on the matter density in reionization and post-reionization era. The collective efforts compiled here has been a large part of the global effort to prepare proper observational technique, analysis procedure for the first light of the CD–EoR through the SKA-low.

  • Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | News

    • Continuous Article Publication

      Posted on January 27, 2016

      Since January 2016, the Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy has moved to Continuous Article Publishing (CAP) mode. This means that each accepted article is being published immediately online with DOI and article citation ID with starting page number 1. Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately. All these have helped shorten the publication time and have improved the visibility of the articles.

    • Editorial Note on Continuous Article Publication

      Posted on July 25, 2019

      Click here for Editorial Note on CAP Mode

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