Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy

    • Core-Collapse Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts in TMT Era

      S. B. Pandey

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      Study of energetic cosmic explosions as a part of time domain astronomy is one of the key areas that could be pursued with upcoming Giant segmented optical-IR telescopes with a very large photon collecting area applying cutting edge technology. Existing 8–10 m class telescopes have been helpful to improve our knowledge about core-collapse supernovae, gamma-ray bursts and nature of their progenitors and explosion mechanisms. However, many aspects about these energetic cosmic explosions are still not well-understood and require much bigger telescopes and back-end instruments with high precision to address the evolution of massive stars and high-redshift Universe in more detail. In this presentation, possible thrust research areas towards core-collapse supernovae and gamma-ray bursts with the Thirty-Meter Telescope and back-end instruments are presented.

    • Deep $V$ and $I$ CCD photometry of young star cluster NGC 1893 with the 3.6m DOT


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      Young star clusters consisting of massive stars are the ideal sites to study the star formation processes and influence of massive stars on the subsequent star formation. NGC 1893 is a young star cluster associated with the Hii region Sh2-236. It contains about five ‘O’-type stars and several early ‘B’-type stars. It is located at a moderate distance of $\sim$3.25 kpc and has a reddening, $E(B - V)\sim 0.4$ mag. To characterize the young low-mass stellar population in the central portion of the cluster, we carried out deep $VI$ band observations of the region using the $4{\rm K} \times 4{\rm K}$ CCD IMAGER mounted on the 3.6-m Devasthal Optical Telescope. Our analysis shows that the present data are deep enough to detect stars below $V \sim 24$ mag. Wefound optical counterparts of $\sim$220 candidates, including young stars and unclassified cluster members from Caramazza et al. (2008). We estimated the membership probabilities of the Gaia sources (mostly bright starswith $G$ < 19 mag) located within the cluster radius using the Gaia EDR3. Toward the fainter end, we used the optical color-magnitude diagram (CMD) to select the cluster members from a sample of young stars. The locations of young stars on the CMD show that a majority of them are low-mass stars with age <10 Myr. The unclassified candidates and X-ray sources from Caramazza et al. (2012) are also found to be young low-mass stars. In total, we identified $\sim$425 young stars with age <10 Myr, and 110 of these are new. Most of these stars appear as kinematic members of the cluster. By examining the CMD for the stars in the cluster region, we suggest that the cluster has insignificant contamination due to field stars in the pre-main-sequence zone ofthe CMD. The slope of the mass function in the mass range $0.2 \leq M/M_{\odot} \leq 2.5$ is found to be $\Gamma=-1.43\pm 0.15$, consistent with those of other star-forming complexes. The spatial distribution of the young stars as a function of mass suggests that toward the cluster center, most of the stars are massive.

    • Photometric calibrations and characterization of the 4K$\times$4K CCD imager, the first-light axial port instrument for the 3.6m DOT


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      In the present work, recent characterization results of the 4K$\times$4K CCD imager (a first light instrument of the 3.6m devasthal optical telescope; DOT) and photometric calibrations are discussed along with measurements of the extinction coefficients and sky brightness values at the location of the 3.6m DOTsite basedon the imaging data taken between 2016 and 2021. For the 4K$\times$4K CCD imager, all given combinations of gains (1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 e$^-$/ADU) and readout noise values for the three readout speeds (100 kHz, 500 kHz and 1 MHz) are verified using the sky flats and bias frames taken during early 2021; measured values resemble well with the theoretical ones. Using color–color and color–magnitude transformation equations, color coefficients ($\alpha$) and zero-points ($\beta$) are determined to constrain and examine their long-term consistencies and any possible evolution based on UBVRI observations of several Landolt standard fields observed during 2016–2021. Our present analysis exhibits consistency among estimated a values within the 1$\sigma$ and does not show any noticeable trend with time. We also found that the photometric errors and limiting magnitudes computed using the data taken using the CCD imager follow the simulated ones published earlier. The average extinction coefficients, their seasonal variations and zenith night-sky brightness values for the moon-less nights for all ten Bessell and SDSS filters are also estimated and found comparable to those reported for other good astronomical sites.

    • Optical observations of star clusters NGC 1513 and NGC 4147; white dwarf WD 1145$+$017 and K band imaging of star-forming region Sh 2-61 with the 3.6-m Devasthal optical telescope


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      The UBVRI CCD photometric data of open star cluster NGC 1513 are obtained with the 3.6-m Indo-Belgian Devasthal optical telescope (DOT). Analyses of the GAIA EDR3 astrometric data have identified 106 possible cluster members. The mean proper motion of the cluster is estimated as $\mu_{\alpha}\cos\delta=1.29\pm 0.02$ and $\mu_{\delta}=-3.74\pm0.02$ mas yr$^{-1}$. Estimated values of reddening $E(B-V)$ and distance to the NGC 1513 are $0.65 \pm 0.03$ mag and $1.33 \pm 0.1$ kpc, respectively. Age of $225 \pm 25$ Myr is assigned to the cluster by comparing theoretical isochrones with deeply observed cluster sequences. Using observations taken with the 3.6-m DOT, values of distance and age of the galactic globular cluster NGC 4147 areestimated as $18.2 \pm 0.2$ Kpc and $14 \pm 2$ Gyr, respectively. The optical observations of planetary transit around white dwarf WD $1145\pm 017$ and $K$-band imaging of star-forming region Sharpless Sh 2-61 demonstrate observing capability of 3.6-m DOT. Optical and near-infrared observations of celestial objects and events are being carried out routinely with the 3.6-m DOT. They indicate that the performance of the telescope is at par with those of other similar telescopes located elsewhere in the world. We, therefore, statethat this observing facility augurs well for multi-wavelength astronomy including the study of astrophysical jets.

    • GRB 210217A: a short or a long GRB?


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      Gamma-ray bursts are traditionally classified as short and long bursts based on their $T_{90}$ value (the time interval during which an instrument observes 5% to 95% of gamma-ray/hard X-ray fluence). However, $T_{90}$ is dependent on the detector sensitivity and the energy range in which the instrument operates. As a result, different instruments provide different values of $T_{90}$ for a burst. GRB 210217A is detected with different duration by Swift and Fermi. It is classified as a long/soft GRB by Swift-BAT with a $T_{90}$ value of 3.76 s. On the other hand, the sub-threshold detection by Fermi-GBM classified GRB 210217A as a short/hard burst with a duration of 1.024 s. We present the multi-wavelength analysis of GRB 210217A (lying in the overlapping regime of long and short GRBs) to identify its actual class using multi-wavelength data. We utilized the $T_{90}$-hardness ratio, $T_{90}-E_p$ and $T_{90}-t_{\rm mvts}$ distributions of the GRBs to find the probability of GRB 210217A being a short GRB. Further, we estimated the photometric redshift of the burst by fitting the joint XRT/UVOT SED and placed the burst in the Amati plane. We found that GRB 210217A is an ambiguous burst showing properties of both short and long class of GRBs.

  • Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | News

    • Continuous Article Publication

      Posted on January 27, 2016

      Since January 2016, the Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy has moved to Continuous Article Publishing (CAP) mode. This means that each accepted article is being published immediately online with DOI and article citation ID with starting page number 1. Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately. All these have helped shorten the publication time and have improved the visibility of the articles.

    • Editorial Note on Continuous Article Publication

      Posted on July 25, 2019

      Click here for Editorial Note on CAP Mode

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