• Ruta Kale

      Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy

    • Discovery of a Giant Radio Halo in a Massive Merging Cluster at 𝑧 = 0.443

      K. S. Dwarakanath Siddharth Malu Ruta Kale

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      We have discovered a giant radio halo in the massive merging cluster MACSJ0417.5-1154. This cluster, at a redshift of 0.443, is one of the most X-ray luminous galaxy cluster in the MAssive Cluster Survey (MACS) with an X-ray luminosity in the 0.1–2.4 keV band of 2.9 × 1045 erg s-1. Recent observations from GMRT at 230 and 610 MHz have revealed a radio halo of ∼ 1.2 × 0.3 Mpc2 in extent. This halo is elongated along the North-West, similar to the morphology of the X-ray emission from Chandra. The 1400 MHz radio luminosity (𝐿r) of the halo is ∼ 2 × 1025 W Hz-1, in good agreement with the value expected from the 𝐿x - 𝐿r correlation for cluster halos.

    • Double Relics in the Outskirts of A3376: Accretion Flows Meet Merger Shocks?

      Ruta Kale K. S. Dwarakanath Joydeep Bagchi Surajit Paul

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      The case of spectacular ring-like double radio relics in the merging, rich galaxy cluster A3376 is of great interest to study non-thermal phenomena at cluster outskirts.We present the first low frequency (330 and 150 MHz) images of the double relics using the GMRT. With our GMRT 330 MHz map and the VLA 1400 MHz map (Bagchi et al. 2006), we have constructed and analyzed the distribution of spectral indices over the radio relics. We find flat spectral indices at the outer edges of both the relics and a gradual steepening of spectral indices toward the inner regions. This supports the model of outgoing merger shock waves. The eastern relic has a complex morphology and spectral index distribution toward the inner region. This will be discussed in the context of the effect of large-scale accretion flows on the outgoing merger shocks as reported in the recent simulations.

    • A Zoo of Radio Relics: Cluster Cores to Filaments

      Ruta Kale K. S. Dwarakanath

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      Radio relics in galaxy clusters can be electrons accelerated at cluster merger shocks or adiabatically compressed fossil radio cocoons or dying radio galaxies. The spectral evolution of radio relics is affected by the surrounding thermal plasma. We present a low frequency study of three radio relics representing environments of dense cluster core (A4038), cluster outskirts (A1664) and filaments (A786). The properties of the relics are found to be consistent with the effect of confinement by external medium if the effects of projection are ignored.

    • Clusters of Galaxies and the Cosmic Web with Square Kilometre Array

      Ruta Kale K. S. Dwarakanath Dharam Vir Lal Joydeep Bagchi Surajit Paul Siddharth Malu Abhirup Datta Viral Parekh Prateek Sharma Mamta Pandey-Pommier

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      The intra-cluster and inter-galactic media that pervade the large scale structure of the Universe are known to be magnetized at sub-micro Gauss to micro Gauss levels and to contain cosmic rays. The acceleration of cosmic rays and their evolution along with that of magnetic fields in these media is still not well understood. Diffuse radio sources of synchrotron origin associated with the Intra-Cluster Medium (ICM) such as radio halos, relics and mini-halos are direct probes of the underlying mechanisms of cosmic ray acceleration. Observations with radio telescopes such as the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, the Very Large Array and the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope have led to the discoveries of about 80 such sources and allowed detailed studies in the frequency range 0.15–1.4 GHz of a few. These studies have revealed scaling relations between the thermal and non-thermal properties of clusters and favour the role of shocks in the formation of radio relics and of turbulent re-acceleration in the formation of radio halos and mini-halos. The radio halos are known to occur in merging clusters and mini-halos are detected in about half of the cool-core clusters. Due to the limitations of current radio telescopes, low mass galaxy clusters and galaxy groups remain unexplored as they are expected to contain much weaker radio sources. Distinguishing between the primary and the secondary models of cosmic ray acceleration mechanisms requires spectral measurements over a wide range of radio frequencies and with high sensitivity. Simulations have also predicted weak diffuse radio sources associated with filaments connecting galaxy clusters. The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is a next generation radio telescope that will operate in the frequency range of 0.05–20 GHz with unprecedented sensitivities and resolutions. The expected detection limits of SKA will reveal a few hundred to thousand new radio halos, relics and mini-halos providing the first large and comprehensive samples for their study. The wide frequency coverage along with sensitivity to extended structures will be able to constrain the cosmic ray acceleration mechanisms. The higher frequency (>5 GHz) observations will be able to use the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich effect to probe the ICM pressure in addition to tracers such as lobes of head–tail radio sources. The SKA also opens prospects to detect the ‘off-state’ or the lowest level of radio emission from the ICM predicted by the hadronic models and the turbulent re-acceleration models.

    • Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback with the Square Kilometre Array and Implications for Cluster Physics and Cosmology

      Asif Iqbal Ruta Kale Subhabrata Majumdar Biman B. Nath Mahadev Pandge Prateek Sharma Manzoor A. Malik Somak Raychaudhury

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      Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) feedback is regarded as an important non-gravitational process in galaxy clusters, providing useful constraints on large-scale structure formation. It modifies the structure and energetics of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) and hence its understanding is crucially needed in order to use clusters as high precision cosmological probes. In this context, particularly keeping in mind the upcoming high quality radio data expected from radio surveys like Square Kilometre Array (SKA) with its higher sensitivity, high spatial and spectral resolutions, we review our current understanding of AGN feedback, its cosmological implications and the impact that SKA can have in revolutionizing our understanding of AGN feedback in large-scale structures. Recent developments regarding the AGN outbursts and its possible contribution to excess entropy in the hot atmospheres of groups and clusters, its correlation with the feedback energy in ICM, quenching of cooling flows and the possible connection between cool core clusters and radio mini-halos, are discussed. We describe current major issues regarding modeling of AGN feedback and its impact on the surrounding medium. With regard to the future of AGN feedback studies, we examine the possible breakthroughs that can be expected from SKA observations. In the context of cluster cosmology, for example, we point out the importance of SKA observations for cluster mass calibration by noting that most of z>1 clusters discovered by eROSITA X-ray mission can be expected to be followed up through a 1000 hour SKA1-mid programme. Moreover, approximately 1000 radio mini halos and ∼2500 radio halos at z<0.6 can be potentially detected by SKA1 and SKA2 and used as tracers of galaxy clusters and determination of cluster selection function.

  • Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | News

    • Continuous Article Publication

      Posted on January 27, 2016

      Since January 2016, the Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy has moved to Continuous Article Publishing (CAP) mode. This means that each accepted article is being published immediately online with DOI and article citation ID with starting page number 1. Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately. All these have helped shorten the publication time and have improved the visibility of the articles.

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