Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy

    • Probing Individual Sources during Reionization and Cosmic Dawn using Square Kilometre Array HI 21-cm Observations

      Kanan K. Datta Raghunath Ghara Suman Majumdar T. Roy Choudhury Somnath Bharadwaj Himadri Roy Abhirup Datta

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      Detection of individual luminous sources during the reionization epoch and cosmic dawn through their signatures in the HI 21-cm signal is one of the direct approaches to probe the epoch. Here, we summarize our previous works on this and present preliminary results on the prospects of detecting such sources using the SKA1-low experiment. We first discuss the expected HI 21-cm signal around luminous sources at different stages of reionization and cosmic dawn. We then introduce two visibility based estimators for detecting such signals: one based on the matched filtering technique and the other relies on simply combing the visibility signal from different baselines and frequency channels. We find that the SKA1-low should be able to detect ionized bubbles of radius $R_{\mathrm {b}} \gtrsim 10$ Mpc with $\sim100 \rm h$ of observations at redshift $z\sim8$ provided that the mean outside neutral hydrogen fraction $\mathrm {x}_{\text {HI}} \gtrsim 0.5$. We also investigate the possibility of detecting HII regions around known bright QSOs such as around ULASJ1120+0641 discovered by Mortlock et al. (Nature 474, 7353 (2011)). We find that a $5σ$ detection is possible with 600 h of SKA1-low observations if the QSO age and the outside $\mathrm {x}_{\text {HI}}$ are at least $\sim2 \times 10^7$ Myr and $\sim0.2$ respectively. Finally, we investigate the possibility of detecting the very first X-ray and Ly- α sources during the cosmic dawn. We consider mini-QSOs like sources which emits in X-ray frequency band. We find that with a total $\sim 1000 \rm h$ of observations, SKA1-low should be able to detect those sources individually with a $∼ 9σ$ significance at redshift z=15. We summarize how the SNR changes with various parameters related to the source properties.

    • Modelling the 21-cm Signal from the Epoch of Reionization and Cosmic Dawn

      T. Roy Choudhury Kanan Datta Suman Majumdar Raghunath Ghara Aseem Paranjape Rajesh Mondal Somnath Bharadwaj Saumyadip Samui

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      Studying the cosmic dawn and the epoch of reionization through the redshifted 21-cm line are among the major science goals of the SKA1. Their significance lies in the fact that they are closely related to the very first stars in the Universe. Interpreting the upcoming data would require detailed modelling of the relevant physical processes. In this article, we focus on the theoretical models of reionization that have been worked out by various groups working in India with the upcoming SKA in mind. These models include purely analytical and semi-numerical calculations as well as fully numerical radiative transfer simulations. The predictions of the 21-cm signal from these models would be useful in constraining the properties of the early galaxies using the SKA data.

    • Line-of-Sight Anisotropies in the Cosmic Dawn and Epoch of Reionization 21-cm Power Spectrum

      Suman Majumdar Kanan K. Datta Raghunath Ghara Rajesh Mondal T. Roy Choudhury Somnath Bharadwaj Sk. Saiyad Ali Abhirup Datta

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      The line-of-sight direction in the redshifted 21-cm signal coming from the cosmic dawn and the epoch of reionization is quite unique in many ways compared to any other cosmological signal. Different unique effects, such as the evolution history of the signal, non-linear peculiar velocities of the matter etc. will imprint their signature along the line-of-sight axis of the observed signal. One of the major goals of the future SKA-LOW radio interferometer is to observe the cosmic dawn and the epoch of reionization through this 21-cm signal. It is thus important to understand how these various effects affect the signal for its actual detection and proper interpretation. For more than one and half decades, various groups in India have been actively trying to understand and quantify the different line-of-sight effects that are present in this signal through analytical models and simulations. In many ways the importance of this sub-field under 21-cm cosmology have been identified, highlighted and pushed forward by the Indian community. In this article, we briefly describe their contribution and implication of these effects in the context of the future surveys of the cosmic dawn and the epoch of reionization that will be conducted by the SKA-LOW.

    • Probing the epoch of reionization using synergies of line intensity mapping


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      The epoch of reionization (EoR) remains a poorly understood cosmic era for the most part. Yet, efforts are still going on to probe and understand this epoch. We present a review of the latest developments in the techniques (especially line-intensity mapping) to study the EoR and try to highlight the contribution of the Indian community in this field. Line-emissions like [Hi]21 cm, Lyman-α, [Cii]158 $\mu$m and their role as tracers in probing the EoR are discussed. While the [Hi]21 cm is an excellent probe of the early inter-galactic medium (IGM), the others are mainly targeted to do an unresolved and large-scale survey of the reionizingsources. Techniques to model these signals include simulations and machine learning approaches along with the challenge to tackle foregrounds or interlopers. We also discuss synergy opportunities among various tracers that we mention. Synergy addresses different aspects of the problem, which is otherwise difficult or impossibleto tackle. They include statistics like cross-power spectrum, cross-bispectrum and other techniques, such as follow-up studies. We present updates on the relevant experiments; these include upper limits on the [Hi]21 cm power spectrum along with some highlights on high-redshift galaxy surveys. Finally, we highlight on what can be improved further within the community: applying machine learning and simulations based on hydrodynamic and radiative-transfer techniques. Next-generation experiments also need to be conceived to address issues, which are currently beyond our reach.

    • Probing early Universe through redshifted 21-cm signal: Modeling and observational challenges


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      Cosmic dawn (CD) and the epoch of reionization (EoR) are the most important parts of cosmic history during which the first luminous structures emerged. These first objects heated and ionized the neutral atomic hydrogen in the intergalactic medium. The redshifted 21-cm radiation from the atomic hydrogen providesan excellent direct probe to study the evolution of neutral hydrogen (Hi) and thus reveal nature of the first luminous objects, their evolution and role in this last phase transition of the Universe and formation and evolution of the structures thereafter. Direct mapping of the Hi density during the CD–EoR is rather difficult with thecurrent and forthcoming instruments due to stronger foreground and other observational contamination. The first detection of this redshifted Hi signal is expected to be done through statistical estimators. Given the upmost importance of the detection and analysis of the redshifted 21-cm signal, physics of CD–EoR is considered asone of the objective of the upcoming SKA-low telescope. This paper summarizes the collective effort of Indianastronomers to understand the origin of the redshifted 21-cm signal, sources of first ionizing photons, their propagation through the IGM, various cosmological effects on the expected 21-cm signal, various statistical measures of the signal like power spectrum, bispectrum, etc. A collective effort on detection of such signalby developing e stimators of the statistical measures with rigorous assessment of their expected uncertainties, various challenges like that of the large foreground emission and calibration issues are also discussed. Various versions of the detection methods discussed here have also been used in practice with the Giant MeterwaveRadio Telescope with successful assessment of the foreground contamination and upper limits on the matter density in reionization and post-reionization era. The collective efforts compiled here has been a large part of the global effort to prepare proper observational technique, analysis procedure for the first light of the CD–EoR through the SKA-low.

    • Studying cosmic dawn using redshifted HI 21-cm signal: A brief review


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      In this review article, we briefly outline our current understanding of the physics associated with the HI 21-cm signal from cosmic dawn. We discuss different phases of cosmic dawn as the ambient gas and the background radiations evolve with the redshift. We address the consequences of several possible heating sources and radiation background on the global 21-cm signal. We further review our present perspective of other important aspects of the HI 21-cm signal, such as power spectrum and imaging. Finally, we highlight thefuture key measurements of the Square Kilometre Array and other ongoing/upcoming experiments that will enlighten our understanding of the early Universe.

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      Posted on January 27, 2016

      Since January 2016, the Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy has moved to Continuous Article Publishing (CAP) mode. This means that each accepted article is being published immediately online with DOI and article citation ID with starting page number 1. Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately. All these have helped shorten the publication time and have improved the visibility of the articles.

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